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67-64-1 75-05-8 98-86-2 107-02-8 107-13-1 107-05-1 919-94-8 994-05-8 62-53-3 71-43-2 75-97-5 75-27-4 75-25-2 74-83-9 78-93-3 75-65-0 104-51-8 135-98-8 98-06-6 75-15-0 56-23-5 108-90-7 124-48-1 75-00-3 67-66-3 74-87-3 95-49-8 106-43-4 110-82-7 96-12-8 74-95-3 95-50-1 541-73-1 106-46-7 764-41-0 110-57-6 75-71-8 75-34-3 107-06-2 75-35-4 156-60-5 156-59-2 78-87-5 142-28-9 594-20-7 563-58-6 10061-01-5 10061-02-6 60-29-7 108-20-3 123-91-1 64-17-5 141-78-6 100-41-4 637-92-3 97-63-2 87-68-3 591-78-6 74-88-4 78-83-1 98-82-8 99-87-6 126-98-7 79-20-9 108-87-2 1634-04-4 75-09-2 80-62-6 90-12-0 91-57-6 108-10-1 91-20-3 98-95-3 924-16-3 55-18-5 62-75-9 621-64-7 10595-95-6 76-01-7 109-06-8 107-12-0 103-65-1 110-86-1 100-42-5 79-34-5 127-18-4 109-99-9 108-88-3 95-53-4 87-61-6 120-82-1 71-55-6 79-00-5 79-01-6 75-69-4 96-18-4 76-13-1 95-63-6 108-67-8 75-01-4 95-47-6 108-38-3 106-42-3 2679-89-2 666-52-4 1665-00-5 392-56-3 1693-74-9 84508-45-2 363-72-4 1076-43-3 17060-07-0 462-06-6 540-36-3 17647-74-4 2037-26-5 7291-22-7 22581-63-1 3114-55-4 56004-61-6 460-00-4 4165-57-5 2199-69-1 434-90-2 4165-60-0 28077-31-4 1146-65-2 38072-94-5

File Name: 67-64-1_75-05-8_98-86-2_107-02-8_107-13-1_107-05-1_919-94.asp

                                         METHOD 8261A

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY VACUUM DISTILLATION IN COMBINATION
WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY (VD/GC/MS)


SW-846 is not intended to be an analytical training manual. Therefore, method
procedures are written based on the assumption that they will be performed by analysts who are
formally trained in at least the basic principles of chemical analysis and in the use of the subject
technology.

In addition, SW-846 methods, with the exception of required method use for the analysis
of method-defined parameters, are intended to be guidance methods which contain general
information on how to perform an analytical procedure or technique which a laboratory can use
as a basic starting point for generating its own detailed standard operating procedure (SOP),
either for its own general use or for a specific project application. The performance data
included in this method are for guidance purposes only, and are not intended to be and must
not be used as absolute QC acceptance criteria for purposes of laboratory accreditation.


1.0 SCOPE AND APPLICATION

1.1 This method is used to determine the concentrations of volatile organic
compounds, and some low-boiling semivolatile organic compounds, in a variety of liquid, solid,
and oily waste matrices, as well as animal tissues. This method differs from the use of method
5032/8260 in the use of internal standards to measure matrix effects and compensate analyte
responses for matrix effects. This method is applicable to nearly all types of matrices, including
water, soil, sediment, sludge, oil, and animal tissue. This method should be considered for
samples where matrix effects are anticipated to severely impact analytical results. The following
compounds have been determined by this method:

Compound CAS Response
Registry Quality
No.a
Acetone 67-64-1 c
Acetonitrile 75-05-8 c
Acetophenone 98-86-2 c
Acrolein 107-02-8 c
Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 c
Allyl Chloride 107-05-1 c
t-Amyl ethyl ether (TAEE) 919-94-8 c
(4,4-Dimethyl-3-oxahexane)
t-Amyl methyl ether (TAME) 994-05-8 c
Aniline 62-53-3 Q
Benzene 71-43-2 c
Bromochloromethane 75-97-5 c
Bromodichloromethane 75-27-4 c
Bromoform 75-25-2 c


8261A - 1 Revision 1
October 2006
Compound CAS Response
Registry Quality
No.a
Bromomethane 74-83-9 c
2-Butanone 78-93-3 c
t-Butyl alcohol (TBA) 75-65-0 c
n-Butylbenzene 104-51-8 c
sec-Butylbenzene 135-98-8 c
tert-Butylbenzene 98-06-6 c
Carbon disulfide 75-15-0 c
Carbon tetrachloride 56-23-5 c
Chlorobenzene 108-90-7 c
Chlorodibromomethane 124-48-1 c
Chloroethane 75-00-3 c
Chloroform 67-66-3 c
Chloromethane 74-87-3 c
2-Chlorotoluene 95-49-8 c
4-Chlorotoluene 106-43-4 c
Cyclohexane 110-82-7 c
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 96-12-8 c
Dibromomethane 74-95-3 c
1,2-Dichlorobenzene 95-50-1 c
1,3-Dichlorobenzene 541-73-1 c
1,4-Dichlorobenzene 106-46-7 c
cis-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 764-41-0 c
trans-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 110-57-6 c
Dichlorodifluoromethane 75-71-8 c
1,1-Dichloroethane 75-34-3 c
1,2-Dichloroethane 107-06-2 c
1,1-Dichloroethene 75-35-4 c
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene 156-60-5 c
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene 156-59-2 c
1,2-Dichloropropane 78-87-5 c
1,3-Dichloropropane 142-28-9 c
2,2-Dichloropropane 594-20-7 c
1,1-Dichloropropene 563-58-6 c
cis-1,3-Dichloropropene 10061-01-5 c
trans-1,3-Dichloropropene 10061-02-6 c
Diethyl ether 60-29-7 c
Diisopropyl ether (DIPE) 108-20-3 c

8261A - 2 Revision 1
October 2006
Compound CAS Response
Registry Quality
No.a
1,4-Dioxane 123-91-1 c
Ethanol 64-17-5 c
Ethyl acetate 141-78-6 c
Ethylbenzene 100-41-4 c
Ethyl t-butyl ether (ETBE) 637-92-3 c
Ethyl methacrylate 97-63-2 c
Hexachlorobutadiene 87-68-3 c
2-Hexanone 591-78-6 c
Iodomethane 74-88-4 c
Isobutyl alcohol 78-83-1 c
Isopropylbenzene 98-82-8 c
p-Isopropyltoluene 99-87-6 c
Methacrylonitrile 126-98-7 c
Methyl acetate 79-20-9 c
Methyl cyclohexane 108-87-2 c
Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) 1634-04-4 c
Methylene chloride 75-09-2 c
Methyl methacrylate 80-62-6 c
1-Methylnaphthalene 90-12-0 c
2-Methylnaphthalene 91-57-6 c
4-Methyl-2-pentanone 108-10-1 c
Naphthalene 91-20-3 c
Nitrobenzene 98-95-3 c
N-Nitrosodibutylamine 924-16-3 Q
N-Nitrosodiethylamine 55-18-5 Q,pc
N-Nitrosodimethylamine 62-75-9 Q,pc
N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine 621-64-7 Q
N-Nitrosomethylethylamine 10595-95-6 Q,pc
Pentachloroethane 76-01-7 c
2-Picoline 109-06-8 Q,pc
Propionitrile 107-12-0 c
n-Propylbenzene 103-65-1 c
Pyridine 110-86-1 c
Styrene 100-42-5 c
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 79-34-5 c
Tetrachloroethene 127-18-4 c
Tetrahydrofuran 109-99-9 c

8261A - 3 Revision 1
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Compound CAS Response
Registry Quality
No.a
Toluene 108-88-3 c
o-Toluidine 95-53-4 Q
1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 87-61-6 c
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 120-82-1 c
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 c
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 79-00-5 c
Trichloroethene 79-01-6 c
Trichlorofluoromethane 75-69-4 c
1,2,3-Trichloropropane 96-18-4 c
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane 76-13-1 c
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 c
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 108-67-8 c
Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 c
o-Xylene 95-47-6 c
m-Xylene 108-38-3 c
p-Xylene 106-42-3 c
Diethylether-d10 2679-89-2 RV IS, RT
Acetone-C13 666-52-4 RV IS
Methylenechloride-d2 1665-00-5 surrogate
Nitromethane-C13 surrogate
Hexafluorobenzene 392-56-3 FP, RV IS,
RT
Tetrahydrofuran-d8 1693-74-9 RV IS
Ethylacetate-C13 84508-45-2 surrogate
Pentafluorobenzene 363-72-4 BP IS
Benzene-d6 1076-43-3 surrogate
1,2-Dichloroethane-d6 17060-07-0 FP, RV IS
Fluorobenzene 462-06-6 FP, RV IS,
RT
1,4-Difluorobenzene 540-36-3 RV IS
1,2-Dichloropropane-d6 surrogate
1,4-Dioxane-d8 17647-74-4 RV IS, RT
Toluene-d8 2037-26-5 BP IS
Pyridine-d5 7291-22-7 RV IS,
surrogate

8261A - 4 Revision 1
October 2006
Compound CAS Response
Registry Quality
No.a
1,1,2-Trichloropropane-d3 surrogate
1,2-Dibromoethane-d4 22581-63-1 RV IS
Chlorobenzene-d5 3114-55-4 RV IS
o-Xylene-d10 56004-61-6 RV IS
4-Bromofluorobenzene 460-00-4 surrogate
Bromobenzene-d5 4165-57-5 BP IS
1,2-Dichlorobenzene-d4 2199-69-1 BP IS, RT
Decafluorobiphenyl 434-90-2 surrogate
Nitrobenzene-d5 4165-60-0 surrogate
Acetophenone-d5 28077-31-4 surrogate,
RT
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene-d3 BP IS, RT
Naphthalene-d8 1146-65-2 BP IS,
surrogate
1-Methylnaphthalene-d10 38072-94-5 surrogate
BP IS
a
Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number

c = Adequate response by this technique
pc = Poor chromatographic behavior
Q = Compound very sensitive to experimental conditions and
response may be insufficient under conditions optimal for most
analytes
FP = First Pass internal standard
RV-IS = Relative volatility internal standard
BP-IS = Boiling point internal standard
surrogate = Compound added to samples for measurement
RT = Retention time reference standard


1.2 This method can be used to quantitate most volatile organic compounds that have
a boiling point below 245EC and a water-to-air partition coefficient below 15,000, which includes
compounds that are miscible with water. Note that this range includes compounds not normally
considered to be volatile analytes (e.g., nitrosamines, aniline, and pyridine). When compounds
that are indicated with a "Q" or "pc" are the primary focus for determination, experimental
conditions (e.g., GC column selection and vacuum distiller conditions) should be re-evaluated.

1.3 This method is based on a vacuum distillation and cryogenic trapping procedure
(Method 5032) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The method
incorporates internal standard-based matrix correction, where the analysis of multiple internal
standards is used to predict matrix effects. The normalization of matrix effects has the impact of
making method 8261 analyses matrix independent and allows multiple matrices to be analyzed


8261A - 5 Revision 1
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within a sample batch. As a result, the calculations involved are specific to this method, and
may not be used with data generated by another method. This method includes all of the
necessary steps from sample preparation through instrumental analysis.

1.4 Prior to employing this method, analysts are advised to consult the base method
for each type of procedure that may be employed in the overall analysis (e.g., Methods 5000,
and 8000) for additional information on quality control procedures, development of QC
acceptance criteria, calculations, and general guidance. Analysts also should consult the
disclaimer statement at the front of the manual and the information in Chapter Two for guidance
on the intended flexibility in the choice of methods, apparatus, materials, reagents, and
supplies, and on the responsibilities of the analyst for demonstrating that the techniques
employed are appropriate for the analytes of interest, in the matrix of interest, and at the levels
of concern.

In addition, analysts and data users are advised that, except where explicitly specified in a
regulation, the use of SW-846 methods is not mandatory in response to Federal testing
requirements. The information contained in this method is provided by EPA as guidance to be
used by the analyst and the regulated community in making judgments necessary to generate
results that meet the data quality objectives for the intended application.

1.5 Use of this method is restricted to use by, or under the supervision of, personnel
appropriately experienced who are familiar with the techniques of vacuum distillation and trained
in the use of gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers and skilled in the interpretation of mass
spectra. Each analyst must demonstrate the ability to generate acceptable results with this
method.


2.0 SUMMARY OF METHOD

2.1 Method 8261 uses vacuum to vaporize analytes, separating them from the sample
matrix. The volatilized material passes through a condenser column where a majority of
vaporized water is condensed. A trap, cooled to cryogenic temperature, then condenses the
analytes that have been volatilized from the sample and have passed through the condenser
column. The volatile compounds are introduced into the gas chromatograph by a vacuum
distiller. The responses of analytes separated by the gas chromatograph (GC) are measured by
a mass spectrometer, interfaced to the gas chromatograph, using the ions identified in Table 3.

2.2 An aliquot of a liquid, solid, or tissue sample is transferred to a sample flask
(reagent water is added to the aliquot of soil, tissue, or oil.), spiked with the internal standard
mixture identified in Sec. 7.6, which is then attached to the vacuum distillation apparatus (see
Figure 1). The sample volumes recommended in the method may be varied, depending on
analytical requirements, while using the same calibration curve. The internal standard
corrections will compensate for variations in sample size as explained in Sec. 12.

2.2 The pressure in the sample chamber is reduced using a vacuum pump and
remains at approximately 10 torr (the vapor pressure of water) as water is removed from the
sample. The vapor is passed over a condenser coil chilled to approximately 5EC, which results
in the condensation of water vapor. The uncondensed distillate is cryogenically trapped in a
section of stainless steel tubing (no absorbant) and chilled cryogenically with liquid nitrogen.

2.3 After distillation, the condensate contained in the cryotrap is thermally desorbed
and transferred to the gas chromatograph using helium as a carrier gas. The analytes are
introduced directly to a wide-bore capillary column, or cryofocussed on a capillary pre-column
before being flash evaporated to a narrow-bore capillary for analysis, or the effluent from the

8261A - 6 Revision 1
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trap is sent to an injection port operating in the split mode for injection to a narrow-bore capillary
column. The column is temperature-programmed to separate the analytes, which are then
detected with a mass spectrometer (MS) interfaced to the gas chromatograph (GC).

2.4 Analytes eluted from the gas chromatographic column are introduced into the mass
spectrometer via a jet separator or a direct connection. (Wide-bore capillary columns normally
require a jet separator, whereas narrow-bore capillary columns may be directly interfaced to the
ion source.)

2.5 It must be emphasized that the vacuum distillation conditions are optimized to
generally remove analytes from the sample matrix and to isolate water from the distillate. The
conditions may be varied to optimize the method for any given analyte or group of analytes.
The length of time required for distillation may vary due to matrix effects or the analyte group of
interest. Operating parameters may be varied to achieve optimum analyte recovery.

2.6 Quantitation is accomplished in three specific steps.

2.6.1 The first step is the measurement of the response of each analyte at the
mass spectrometer. The amount (mass) of analyte introduced into the mass spectrometer
is determined by comparing the response (area) of the quantitation ion for the analyte from
a sample analysis to the quantitation ion response generated during the initial calibration.

NOTE: The response as noted in this method differs from the response factor as
described in Method 8260, where a value is calculated based on a
retention time that is relative to the nearest internal standard. For a more
through explanation of the Method 8261 theory and chemistry principles
please refer to the document found at the following link:
http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/vacuum/training/pdf/theory-rev5.p
df

2.6.2 The second step is the determination of internal standard recovery. The
recommended internal standards are listed in Table 6. The internal standard recovery is
equal to the total internal standard compound response for a sample divided by its
average response during initial calibration. The internal standard recoveries are used to
determine recovery as a function of chemical properties. Using the resultant function,
recovery is is then calculated for the analytes using their respective chemical properties
(see Sec. 12).

2.6.3 Finally, using the recovery , sample size, and quantity of analyte detected
at the mass spectrometer, the concentration of analyte is calculated.

2.6.4 The software that generates the matrix corrections is freely available from
the EPA at http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/vacuum/default.htm.

2.7 This method includes specific calibration and quality control steps that supersede
the general requirements provided in Methods 8000 and 8260.




8261A - 7 Revision 1
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3.0 DEFINITIONS

Terms specific to this procedure are provided in this section. Also refer to Chapter One
and the manufacturer's instructions for other definitions that may be relevant to this procedure.

RV Relative volatility in method 8261 is a chemical property that describes the ability of
a compound to be distilled from water. The value is closely related to their water to
air partition coefficient (K) and is determined experimentally. Either relative
volatility or K-values can be used to describe this effect and Table 3 lists relative
volatility values for the compounds in Table 1 that are equivalent to K (Ref. 7).

RV - IS An internal standard used to measure effects relating to relative volatility. The
relative volatility or gas-liquid partitioning internal standards are added to the
sample to measure the recovery of analytes relative to how the compound
partitions between gas and liquid (partition coefficient K). Compounds that are
going to be used as relative volatility internal standards that have boiling points
above 40EC must first be evaluated for potential losses due to condensation and a
correction made to their recoveries when condensation is evident. Relative
volatility internal standards are also known as distillation performance surrogates.

BP Boiling point of a compound.

BP - IS An internal standard used to measure effects relating to boiling point. The boiling
point or condensation internal standards are added to the sample to measure the
recovery of analytes relative to how the compounds condense on apparatus and
sample surfaces during a vacuum distillation. The boiling point internal standards
are identified in Table 3.

Cryotrap Component of vacuum distiller where distillates are cryogenically frozen prior to
transfer to GC.

R,r Recovery of compound that is measured using internal standards. The uncertainty
associated in the measurement of R is r.

RT, rT Recovery of a compound reflecting boiling point (R) and relative volatility (R)
recoveries measured by internal standards. The uncertainty associated in the
measurement of RT is rT.

R, r Recovery of a compound that relates to its relative volatility as measured by its RV-
IS. The uncertainty associated in the measurement of R is r.

R, r Recovery of a compound that relates to its boiling point as measured by its BP-IS.
The uncertainty associated in the measurement of R is r.

RF Response factor is the response of the quantitation ion of a compound detected by
a mass spectrometer. Response factor, as noted in Method 8261, is in units of
area counts divided by mass (e.g., cts/ngs).

RT Internal standard used to measure consistency of chromatographic retention times.

Reference Analysis used as a reference point for internal standard comparisons in order to
Run measure matrix effects on calibration standards. After a calibration curve is
generated the calibration is the reference for subsequent analyses.



8261A - 8 Revision 1
October 2006
IS Internal standards are used to correct the response of analytes as their associated
internal standards may vary from their calibrated response. In method 8261
internal standard are compounds added to a sample prior to analysis and they are
used to normalize the response of analytes for their chemical properties, relative
volatility, and boiling point. While method 8260 internal standards are used to
normalize the responses of analytes as a function of retention time, the Method
8261 internal standards normalize as functions of relative volatility and boiling
point. For a more through explanation of the Method 8261 chemistry principles
please refer to the document found at the following link:
http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/vacuum/training/pdf/theory-rev5.pdf

FP First pass internal standard. First pass internal standards are used to identify
effects that are due to relative volatility on boiling point internal standards. First
pass internal standards are only used to clarify boiling point internal standards
recoveries.

Surrogate Compound added to a sample before analysis and used as a metric for method
performance.


4.0 INTERFERENCES

4.1 Solvents, reagents, glassware, and other sample processing hardware may yield
artifacts and/or interferences to sample analysis (e.g., an elevated baseline in the
chromatograms). All of these materials must be demonstrated to be free from interferences
under the conditions of the analysis by analyzing method blanks. Specific selection of reagents
and purification of solvents by distillation in all-glass systems may be necessary. Refer to each
method to be used for specific guidance on quality control procedures and to Chapter Four for
general guidance on the cleaning of glassware.

4.2 Major contaminant sources are volatile materials in the laboratory. The laboratory
where the analysis is to be performed should be free of solvents other than water and methanol.
Many common solvents, most notably acetone and methylene chloride, are frequently found in
laboratory air at low levels. The sample chamber should be loaded in an environment that is
clean enough to eliminate the potential for contamination from ambient sources. In addition, the
use of non-PTFE thread sealants, plastic tubing, or flow controllers with rubber components
should be avoided, since such materials out-gas organic compounds which will be concentrated
in the trap during the purge operation. Analyses of calibration and reagent blanks provide
information about the presence of contaminants. Subtracting blank values from sample results
is not permitted. If reporting values for situations where the laboratory feels is a false positive
result for a sample, the laboratory should fully explain this in text accompanying the uncorrected
data and / or include a data qualifier that is accompanied with an explanation.

4.3 Contamination may occur when a sample containing low concentrations of volatile organic
compounds is analyzed immediately after a sample containing high concentrations of volatile or
semivolatile organic compounds. The recommended vacuum distillation procedure (11.2.2)
provides sufficient decontamination to limit memory of previous volatile compounds to less than
one percent in a following run. The memory of a semivolatile compound can be as high as five
percent. To minimize the contamination further, a clean sample vessel and O-ring should be
put in at the port that contained the high-concentration sample and reagent blanks analyzed
until the system is shown free of contamination. As a precaution, sample syringes or other
sample aliquoting devices should be rinsed with two portions of organic-free reagent water
between samples. After the analysis of a sample containing high concentrations of volatile
organic compounds, one or more blanks should be analyzed to check for cross-contamination.

8261A - 9 Revision 1
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Alternatively, if the sample immediately following the high concentration sample does not
contain the volatile organic compounds present in the high level sample, freedom from
contamination has been established. Note: in instances of gross contamination by higher
boiling compounds (e.g., components of fuels) an overnight decontamination routine may be
required (see vendor specifications for decontamination procedures).

4.4 After analysis, the sample vessel should be washed with a soap solution and
rinsed with organic-free reagent water. When samples contain high levels of organic matter
(e.g., biota), sonication and rinsing the sample vessel with methanol may be required.
Overnight heating to over 100 EC is recommended.

4.5 Special precautions must be taken to analyze for methylene chloride. The
analytical and sample storage area should be isolated from all atmospheric sources of
methylene chloride. Otherwise, random background levels will result. Since methylene chloride
will permeate through PTFE tubing, all gas chromatography carrier gas lines and purge gas
plumbing should be constructed from stainless steel or copper tubing. Laboratory clothing worn
by the analyst should be clean, since clothing previously exposed to methylene chloride fumes
during liquid/liquid extraction procedures can contribute to sample contamination.

4.6 Samples can be contaminated by diffusion of volatile organics (particularly
methylene chloride and fluorocarbons) through the septum seal of the sample container into the
sample during shipment and storage. A trip blank prepared from organic-free reagent water and
carried through the sampling, handling, and storage protocols can serve as a check on such
contamination.

4.7 Use of sensitive mass spectrometers to achieve lower quantitation levels will
increase the potential to detect laboratory contaminants as interferences.


5.0 SAFETY

This method does not address all safety issues associated with its use. The laboratory is
responsible for maintaining a safe work environment and a current awareness file of OSHA
regulations regarding the safe handling of the chemicals listed in this method. A reference file
of material safety data sheets (MSDSs) should be available to all personnel involved in these
analyses.


6.0 EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES

The mention of trade names or commercial products in this manual is for illustrative
purposes only, and does not constitute an EPA endorsement or exclusive recommendation for
use. The products and instrument settings cited in SW-846 methods represent those products
and settings used during method development or subsequently evaluated by the Agency.
Glassware, reagents, supplies, equipment, and settings other than those listed in this manual
may be employed provided that method performance appropriate for the intended application
has been demonstrated and documented.

This section does not list common laboratory glassware (e.g., beakers and flasks).

6.1 Vacuum distillation apparatus (See Figure 1) -- The basic apparatus consists of a
sample chamber connected to a condenser that is attached to a heated six-port valve (V4)
which is attached to a cryogenically cooled trap (cryotrap). The condenser is flushed with
nitrogen gas after each distillation. Vacuum is supplied by a vacuum pump through the six-port

8261A - 10 Revision 1
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valve during distillations and through a larger orifice valve connected directly to the condenser
for evacuating the condenser (after nitrogen flushing) and system lines between sample
distillations.

6.1.1 The sampling valve (V4) is connected to the following: condenser (by way
of vacuum pump valve - V3), vacuum pump, cryotrap, gas
chromatograph/mass spectrometer. The six-port sampling valve (V4)
should be heated to at least 160 EC to prevent condensation and potential
carryover.

6.1.2 The condenser is operated at two different temperatures. The lower
temperature is between -5EC and 10EC, and the upper temperature is 95EC. The lower
temperature is used to condense water and should be at a consistent temperature
throughout the interior surface. The condenser is heated to the upper temperature to
remove water and potential contaminants. The initial apparatus described in Reference 9
used circulating fluids (see Figure 1) but other means of controlling temperatures may be
used.

The apparatus internal transfer lines are heated to 95 EC, a temperature
6.1.3
sufficient to prevent condensation of analytes onto condenser walls, valves, and
connections. The transfer line from the sampling valve to the gas chromatograph should
be heated to a temperature between 150EC and the upper temperature utilized by the GC
program.

Vacuum is supplied by a pump with displacement $1 ft3min-1 and capable
6.1.4
of reaching 10-4 torr. This vacuum should be sufficient to volatilize >0.3 g of water from a
5 mL water sample in 7.5 min. The vacuum of the system should be monitored for
integrity. Improperly seated seals or errors in operation will cause elevated pressure
readings.

6.1.5 The cryotrap condenser distillate contained in the 1/8-in stainless steel
tubing can be blocked when the condenser temperature is not sufficient to trap water or a
sample contains a large amount of volatile compounds. These problems may be detected
by a rapid drop in pressure readings recorded in the vacuum distillation log file.

6.1.6 The vacuum distiller software controls all conditions of the vacuum
distillation apparatus during distillation and decontamination routines. The software also
records all vacuum distiller readings (time, temperatures, pressure) in a log file that allows
interpretation of the vacuum distillation process. The log file is considered integral to each
distillation and should be consulted when errors are suspected.

6.1.7 Any apparatus used must demonstrate appropriate performance for the
intended application (see Tables 10 through 15).

6.2 Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system

6.2.1 Gas chromatograph - An analytical system complete with a
temperature-programmable gas chromatograph suitable for splitless injection with
appropriate interface for sample introduction device. The system includes all required
accessories, such as syringes, analytical columns, and gases.

6.2.1.1 The GC should be equipped with variable constant differential
flow controllers so that the column flow rate will remain constant throughout
desorption and temperature program operation.

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6.2.1.2 For some column configurations, the column oven must be
cooled to less than 30EC, therefore, a subambient oven controller may be
necessary.

6.2.1.3 The capillary column is either directly coupled to the source or
interfaced through a jet separator, depending on the size of the capillary and the
requirements of the GC/MS system.

6.2.1.4 Capillary pre-column interface - This device is the interface
between the sample introduction device and the capillary gas chromatograph, and
is necessary when using cryogenic cooling. The interface condenses the
desorbed sample components and focuses them into a narrow band on an
uncoated fused-silica capillary pre-column. When the interface is flash heated, the
sample is transferred to the analytical capillary column.

6.2.1.5 During the cryofocussing step, the temperature of the fused-
silica in the interface is maintained at -150EC under a stream of liquid nitrogen.
After the desorption period, the interface must be capable of rapid heating to
250EC in 15 seconds or less to complete the transfer of analytes.

6.2.2 Gas chromatographic columns - The following columns have been found
to provide good separation of volatile compounds, however they are not listed in
preferential order based on performance and the ability to achieve project-specific data
quality objectives.

6.2.2.1 Column 1 - 30 - 75 m x 0.53 mm ID capillary column coated
with DB-624 (J&W Scientific), Rtx-502.2 (RESTEK), or VOCOL (Supelco), 3-祄
film thickness, or equivalent.

6.2.2.2 Column 2 - 30 m x 0.25 - 0.32 mm ID capillary column coated
with 95% dimethyl - 5% diphenyl polysiloxane (DB-5, Rtx-5, SPB-5, or equivalent),
1-祄 film thickness.

6.2.2.3 Column 3 - 60 m x 0.32 mm ID capillary column coated with
DB-624 (J&W Scientific), 1.8-祄 film thickness, or equivalent.

6.2.2.4 Column 4 - 20m x 0.18mm ID, 1.0um column film thickness.

6.3 Mass spectrometer

6.3.1 Capable of scanning from m/z 35 to 270 every 1 sec or less, using 70
volts (nominal) electron energy in the electron impact ionization mode. The mass
spectrometer must be capable of producing a mass spectrum for 4-bromofluorobenzene
(BFB) which meet the criteria as outlined in Sec. 11.3.1.

6.3.2 An ion trap mass spectrometer may be used if it is capable of axial
modulation to reduce ion-molecule reactions and can produce electron impact-like spectra
that match those in the EPA/NIST Library. Because ion-molecule reactions with water and
methanol in an ion trap mass spectrometer may produce interferences that coelute with
chloromethane and chloroethane, the base peak for both of these analytes will be at m/z
49. This ion should be used as the quantitation ion in this case. The mass spectrometer
must be capable of producing a mass spectrum for BFB which meet the criteria as
outlined in Sec. 11.3.1.



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6.4 GC/MS interface - Two alternatives may be used to interface the GC to the mass
spectrometer.

6.4.1 Direct coupling, by inserting the column into the mass spectrometer, is
generally used for 0.25 - 0.32 mm ID columns.

6.4.2 A jet separator, including an all-glass transfer line and glass enrichment
device or split interface, is used with a 0.53 mm column.

6.4.3 Any enrichment device or transfer line may be used, if all of the
performance specifications described in Sec. 9.0 (including acceptable calibration at 50 ng
or less) can be achieved. GC/MS interfaces constructed entirely of glass or of glass-lined
materials are recommended. Glass may be deactivated by silanizing with
dichlorodimethylsilane.

6.5 Data system - A computer system that allows the continuous acquisition and
storage on machine-readable media of all mass spectra obtained throughout the duration of the
chromatographic program must be interfaced to the mass spectrometer. The computer must
have software that allows searching any GC/MS data file for ions of a specified mass and
plotting such ion abundances versus time or scan number. This type of plot is defined as an
Extracted Ion Current Profile (EICP). Software must also be available that allows integrating the
abundances in any EICP between specified time or scan-number limits. The most recent
version of the EPA/NIST Mass Spectral Library should also be available.

6.6 Containers for liquid nitrogen -- Dewars or other containers suitable for holding the
liquid nitrogen used to cool the cryogenic trap and sample loop.

6.7 Microsyringes -- 10-礚, 25-礚, 100-礚, 250-礚, 500-礚, and 1000-礚. Each of
these syringes should be equipped with a 20-gauge (0.006 in ID) needle.

6.8 Syringe -- 5-mL and 10-mL glass gas-tight, with shutoff valve.

6.9 Balance-Analytical, capable of accurately weighing to 0.0001 g. and a top-loading
balance capable of weighing to 0.01 g.

6.10 Disposable pipets - Pasteur.

6.11 Sample flask -- 100-mL borosilicate bulb joined to a 15-mm ID borosilicate O-ring
connector, or equivalent. The flask must be capable of being evacuated to a pressure of
10 millitorr without implosion. The flask is sealed for sample storage with an O-ring capable of
maintaining the vacuum in the chamber, a 15-mm ID O-ring connector cap, and a pinch clamp.

6.12 Volumetric flasks, Class A - 10-mL and 100-mL, with ground-glass stoppers.

6.13 Spatula - Stainless steel.




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7.0 REAGENTS AND SUPPLIES

7.1 Reagent-grade chemicals must be used in all tests. Unless otherwise indicated, it
is intended that all reagents conform to the specifications of the Committee on Analytical
Reagents of the American Chemical Society, where such specifications are available. Other
grades may be used, provided it is first ascertained that the reagent is of sufficiently high purity
to permit its use without lessening the accuracy of the determination

7.2 Organic-free reagent water -- All references to water in this method refer to
organic-free reagent water, as defined in Chapter One.

7.3 Methanol -- CH3OH, purge-and-trap grade, or equivalent. Store away from other
solvents.

7.4 Stock standard solutions -- The solutions may be prepared from pure standard
materials or purchased as certified solutions. Prepare stock standard solutions in methanol,
using assayed liquids or gases, as appropriate.

7.4.1 Place about 9.8 mL of methanol in a 10-mL tared, ground-glass-
stoppered volumetric flask. Allow the flask to stand, unstoppered, for about 10 min or until
all alcohol-wetted surfaces have dried. Weigh the flask to the nearest 0.1 mg.

7.4.2 Add the assayed pure standard material, as described below.

7.4.2.1 Liquids -- Using a 100-礚 syringe, immediately add two or
more drops of assayed pure standard material to the flask, then reweigh. The
liquid must fall directly into the alcohol without contacting the neck of the flask.

7.4.2.2 Gases -- To prepare standards for any compounds that boil
below 30EC (e.g., bromomethane, chloroethane, chloromethane, or vinyl chloride),
fill a 5-mL valved gas-tight syringe with the pure standard to the 5.0 mL mark.
Lower the needle to 5 mm above the methanol meniscus. Slowly introduce the
reference standard above the surface of the liquid. The heavy gas will rapidly
dissolve in the methanol. Standards may also be prepared by using a lecture
bottle equipped with a septum. Attach polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubing to the
side-arm relief valve and direct a gentle stream of gas onto the methanol
meniscus.

7.4.3 Reweigh, dilute to volume, stopper, and mix by inverting the flask several
times. Calculate the concentration in micrograms per microliter (礸/礚) from the net gain
in weight. When compound purity is assayed to be 96% or greater, the weight may be
used without correction to calculate the concentration of the stock standard. Commercially
prepared stock standards may be used at any concentration if they are certified by the
manufacturer or by an independent source.

7.4.4 Transfer the stock standard solution into a bottle with a PTFE-lined
screw-cap. Store, with minimal headspace and protected from light, at #6EC or as
recommended by the standard manufacturer. Standards should be returned to the
refrigerator or freezer as soon as the analyst has completed mixing or diluting the
standards to prevent the evaporation of volatile target compounds.

7.4.5 Frequency of Standard Preparation




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7.4.5.1 Standards for the permanent gases should be monitored
frequently by comparison to the initial calibration curve. Fresh standards should be
prepared if this check exceeds a 20% drift. Standards for gases usually need to be
replaced after one week or as recommended by the standard manufacturer, unless
the acceptability of the standard can be documented. Dichlorodifluoromethane
and dichloromethane will usually be the first compounds to evaporate from the
standard and should, therefore, be monitored very closely when standards are held
beyond one week.

7.4.5.2 Standards for the non-gases should be monitored frequently
by comparison to the initial calibration. Fresh standards should be prepared if this
check exceeds a 20% drift. Standards for non-gases usually need to be replaced
after one month for working standards and three months for opened stocks or as
recommended by the standard manufacturer, unless the acceptability of the
standard can be documented. Standards of reactive compounds such as
2-chloroethyl vinyl ether and styrene may need to be prepared more frequently.

7.5 Secondary dilution standards

Secondary dilution standards - Using stock standard solutions, prepare secondary dilution
standards in methanol containing the compounds of interest, either singly or mixed together.
Secondary dilution standards must be stored with minimal headspace and should be checked
frequently for signs of degradation or evaporation, especially just prior to preparing calibration
standards from them. Store in a vial with no headspace. Secondary standards for most
compounds should be replaced after 2-4 weeks unless the acceptability of the standard can be
documented. Secondary standards for gases should be replaced after one week unless the
acceptability of the standard can be documented. When using premixed certified solutions,
store according to the manufacturer's documented holding time and storage temperature
recommendations. The analyst should also handle and store standards as stated in Sec. 7.4.4
and return them to the refrigerator or freezer as soon as standard mixing or diluting is completed
to prevent the evaporation of volatile target compounds.

7.6 Surrogate standards - The recommended surrogates are presented in Table 6.
These surrogates represent groupings of analytes (volatile, non-purgeable, and semivolatile
compounds). Other compounds may be used as surrogates, depending upon the analysis
requirements. A stock surrogate solution in methanol should be prepared as described above,
and a surrogate standard spiking solution should be prepared from the stock at an appropriate
concentration in methanol. Each sample undergoing GC/MS analysis must be spiked with the
surrogate spiking solution prior to analysis. If a more sensitive mass spectrometer is employed
to achieve lower quantitation levels, then more dilute surrogate solutions may be required.

7.6.1 The range of compounds that are considered as volatile compounds by
this method have boiling points less than 159 EC and relative volatility values # 100. The
surrogates that represent this group are methylene chloride-d2, benzene-d6, 1,2-
dichloropropane-d6, 1,1,2 trichloroethane-d3 and 4-bromofluorobenzene.

7.6.2 The range of compounds that are considered as non-purgeable by this
method are those that have relative volatility values greater than 100. The surrogates that
represent this group are nitromethane-C13, ethyl acetate-C13 and pyridine-d5. Ethyl
acetate-C13 has been found to quickly degrade in the presence of biologically active
samples. Pyridine-d5 is susceptible to chromatographic degradation in the presence of
excessive water being transferred to the gas chromatograph from the vacuum distiller's
cryotrap.



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7.6.3 The range of compounds that are considered as semi-volatile compounds
by this method have boiling points greater than 159 EC. The surrogates for this group
include decafluorobiphenyl, nitrobenzene-d5, acetophenone-d5, and naphthalene-d8.

7.7 Internal standard standards

This method incorporates internal standards that are added to each sample prior to
analysis and are used to monitor and correct for matrix effects such as water-to-air partitioning
(as relative volatility) and vapor pressure (as boiling point) and are listed in Table6. The specific
internal standard used are described in the following paragraphs. Additional information is
provided in the glossary. A stock solution containing all of the internal standard should be
prepared in methanol at the concentrations listed in Table 6 using the same guidance given for
stock standard solution preparation noted in Sec. 7.4. Each sample should be spiked with 5 礚
of the internal standard spiking solution prior to analysis. The boiling points and relative
volatility values for analytes and internal standard are presented in Table 4.

7.7.1 Relative volatility internal standard - These standards, listed in Table 4,
are added to the sample to measure the recovery of analytes relative to how the
compound partitions between gas and liquid (partition coefficient K). Compounds that are
going to be used as relative volatility internal standards that have boiling points above 40
EC must first be evaluated for potential losses due to condensation and a correction made
to their recoveries when condensation is evident. Relative volatility internal standards are
also known as distillation performance internal standards.

7.7.2 Boiling point internal standards - These internal standards are listed in
Table 8. These internal standards are added to the sample to measure the recovery of
analytes relative to how the compounds condense on apparatus and sample surfaces
during a vacuum distillation.

7.8 4-Bromofluorobenzene (BFB) standard -- A solution containing 25 ng/礚 of BFB in
methanol should be prepared. If a more sensitive mass spectrometer is employed to achieve
lower detection levels, then a more dilute BFB standard solution may be required.

7.9 Calibration standards -There are two types of calibration standards used for this
method: initial calibration standards and calibration verification standards. When using
premixed certified solutions, store according to the manufacturer's documented holding time
and storage temperature recommendations.

7.9.1 Initial calibration standards should be prepared at a minimum of five
different concentrations from the secondary dilution of stock standards (see Secs. 7.4 and
7.5) or from a premixed certified solution. Prepare these solutions in organic-free reagent
water. At least one of the calibration standards should correspond to a sample
concentration at or below that necessary to meet the data quality objectives of the project.
The remaining standards should correspond to the range of concentrations found in typical
samples but should not exceed the working range of the GC/MS system. Initial calibration
standards should be mixed from fresh stock standards and dilution standards when
generating an initial calibration curve.

7.9.2 Calibration verification standards should be prepared at a concentration
near the mid-point of the initial calibration range from the secondary dilution of stock
standards (see Secs. 7.4 and 7.5) or from a premixed certified solution. Prepare these
solutions in organic-free reagent water. See Sec. 11.4 for guidance on calibration
verification.



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7.9.3 It is the intent of EPA that all target analytes for a particular analysis be
included in the initial calibration and calibration verification standard(s). These target
analytes may not include the entire list of analytes (Sec. 1.1) for which the method has
been demonstrated. However, the laboratory shall not report a quantitative result for a
target analyte that was not included in the calibration standard(s).

7.9.4 The calibration standards must also contain the internal standards chosen
for the analysis.

7.10 Liquid nitrogen -- For use in cooling the cryogenic trap (see Figure 1) and the
condenser described in Reference 9, if employed.

7.11 Matrix spiking and laboratory control sample (LCS) standards - Matrix spiking is not
a requirement of this method due to the direct measurement of matrix effects. See Method
5000 for instructions on preparing the LCS standard. The laboratory control standards should
be from the same source as the initial calibration standards to restrict the influence of accuracy
on the determination of recovery throughout preparation and analysis. The LCS standards
should be prepared from volatile organic compounds which are representative of the
compounds being investigated.

7.11.1 Some permits may require the spiking of specific compounds of interest.
The standard should be prepared in methanol, with each compound present at an
appropriate concentration.

7.11.2 If a more sensitive mass spectrometer is employed to achieve lower
quantitation levels, more dilute laboratory control standard (LCS) solutions may be
required.

7.12 Great care must be taken to maintain the integrity of all standard solutions. It is
recommended that all standards be stored with minimal headspace and protected from light, at
#6EC or as recommended by the standard manufacturer using screw-cap or crimp-top amber
containers equipped with PTFE liners. Standards should be returned to the refrigerator or
freezer as soon as the analyst has completed mixing or diluting the standards to prevent the
loss of volatile target compounds.


8.0 SAMPLE COLLECTION, PRESERVATION, AND HANDLING

8.1 See the introductory material to Chapter Four, "Organic Analytes."

8.2 Aqueous samples should be stored with minimal or no headspace to minimize the
loss of highly volatile analytes.

8.3 Samples to be analyzed for volatile compounds should be stored separately from
standards and from other samples expected to contain significantly different concentrations of
volatile compounds, or from samples collected for the analysis of other parameters such as
semivolatiles.

NOTE: Storage blanks should be used to monitor potential cross-contamination
of samples due to improper storage conditions. The specific of this type
of monitoring activity should be outlined in a laboratory standard
operating procedure pertaining to volatiles sample storage.




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9.0 QUALITY CONTROL

9.1 Refer to Chapter One for guidance on quality assurance (QA) and quality control
(QC) protocols. When inconsistencies exist between QC guidelines, method-specific QC
criteria take precedence over both technique-specific criteria and those criteria given in Chapter
One, and technique-specific QC criteria take precedence over the criteria in Chapter One. Any
effort involving the collection of analytical data should include development of a structured and
systematic planning document, such as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) or a Sampling
and Analysis Plan (SAP), which translates project objectives and specifications into directions
for those that will implement the project and assess the results. Each laboratory should
maintain a formal quality assurance program. The laboratory should also maintain records to
document the quality of the data generated. All data sheets and quality control data should be
maintained for reference or inspection.

9.2 Quality control procedures necessary to evaluate the GC system operation are
found in Method 8000 and include evaluation of retention time windows, calibration verification
and chromatographic analysis of samples. In addition, discussions regarding the instrument QC
requirements listed below can be found in the referenced sections of this method:

? The GC/MS must be tuned to meet the recommended BFB criteria prior to the
initial calibration and for each 12-hr period during which analyses are performed.
See Secs. 11.4.1 for further details.

? There must be an initial calibration of the GC/MS system as described in Sec. 11.3.
In addition, the initial calibration curve should be verified immediately after
performing the standard analyses using a second source standard (prepared using
standards different from the calibration standards) spiked into organic-free reagent
water. The suggested acceptance limits for this initial calibration verification
analysis are 70 - 130%. Alternative acceptance limits may be appropriate based
on the desired project-specific data quality objectives. Quantitative sample
analyses should not proceed for those analytes that fail the second source
standard initial calibration verification. However, analyses may continue for those
analytes that fail the criteria with an understanding these results could be used for
screening purposes and would be considered estimated values.

? The GC/MS system must meet the calibration verification acceptance criteria in
Sec. 11.4, each 12 hours.

? The RRT of the sample component must fall within the RRT window of the
standard component provided in Sec. 11.4.4.

9.3 Initial demonstration of proficiency

Each laboratory must demonstrate initial proficiency with each sample preparation and
determinative method combination it utilizes, by generating data of acceptable accuracy and
precision for target analytes in a clean matrix. If an autosampler is used to perform sample
dilutions, before using the autosampler to dilute samples, the laboratory should satisfy itself that
those dilutions are of equivalent or better accuracy than is achieved by an experienced analyst
performing manual dilutions. The laboratory must also repeat the following operations
whenever new staff are trained or significant changes in instrumentation are made. See Method
8000 for information on how to accomplish this demonstration of proficiency.

9.4 Before processing any samples, the analyst should demonstrate, through the
analysis of a method blank, that interferences and/or contaminants from the analytical system,

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glassware, and reagents are under control. Each time a set of samples is analyzed or there is a
change in reagents, a method blank should be analyzed for the compounds of interest as a
safeguard against chronic laboratory contamination. The blanks should be carried through all
stages of sample preparation and measurement.

9.5 Sample quality control for preparation and analysis

The laboratory must also have procedures for documenting the effect of the matrix on
method performance (precision, accuracy, and method sensitivity). At a minimum, this should
include the analysis of QC samples including a method blank and a laboratory control sample
(LCS) in each analytical batch and the addition of surrogates to each field sample and QC
sample.

9.5.1 Measuring the effect of the matrix is performed by the matrix internal
standards by sample. The documentation of these effects is presented on QC reports
generated by sample. An example is presented in Figure 3.

9.5.2 A laboratory control sample (LCS) should be included with each analytical
batch. The LCS consists of an aliquot of a clean (control) matrix similar to the sample
matrix and of the same weight or volume. When the results of the matrix internal
standards indicate a potential problem due to the sample matrix itself, the LCS results are
used to verify that the laboratory can perform the analysis in a clean matrix. Also note the
LCS for water sample matrices is typically prepared in organic-free reagent water similar
to the continuing calibration verification standard. In these situations, a single analysis
can be used for both the LCS and continuing calibration verification.

9.5.3 See Method 8000 for the details on carrying out sample quality control
procedures for preparation and analysis. In-house method performance criteria for
evaluating method performance should be developed using the guidance found in Method
8000.

9.5.4 Method blanks - Before processing any samples, the analyst must
demonstrate that all equipment and reagent interferences are under control. Each day a
set of samples is extracted or, equipment or reagents are changed, a method blank must
be analyzed. If a peak is observed within the retention time window of any analyte that
would prevent the determination of that analyte, determine the source and eliminate it, if
possible, before processing samples.

9.6 Surrogate recoveries

The laboratory must evaluate surrogate recovery data from individual samples versus the
surrogate control limits developed by the laboratory. See Method 8000 for information on
developing and updating surrogate limits. Matrix effects and distillation performance may be
monitored separately through the use of surrogates. The effectiveness of using the relative
volatility and boiling point internal standards to correct matrix effects is monitored using the
surrogates identified in Sec. 7.6.3. Advisory surrogate recovery windows by matrix are
presented in Table 7.

9.7 The experience of the analyst performing GC/MS analyses is invaluable to the
success of the methods. Each day that analysis is performed, the calibration verification
standard should be evaluated to determine if the chromatographic system is operating properly.
Questions that should be asked are: Do the peaks look normal? Is the response obtained
comparable to the response from previous calibrations? Careful examination of the standard
chromatogram can indicate whether the column is still performing acceptably, the injector is

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leaking, the injector septum needs replacing, etc. If any changes are made to the system (e.g.,
the column changed), recalibration of the system must take place.

9.8 It is recommended that the laboratory adopt additional quality assurance practices
for use with this method. The specific practices that are most productive depend upon the
needs of the laboratory and the nature of the samples. Whenever possible, the laboratory
should analyze standard reference materials and participate in relevant performance evaluation
studies.


10.0 CALIBRATION AND STANDARDIZATION

See Sec 11.4 for information on calibration and standardization.


11.0 PROCEDURE

11.1 Sample preparation

This method utilizes vacuum distillation prior to GC/MS analysis. Various sample volumes
or weights may be employed, provided that the sensitivity of the method is adequate for project
needs. Given the inherent recovery correction, changes in sample amount do not necessitate
recalibration of the instrument using standards of the same volume.

11.1.1 Aqueous samples

Quickly transfer a 5-mL aliquot of the sample to the distillation flask, taking care not
to introduce air bubbles or agitate the sample during the transfer. Add 5 礚 of the internal
standard spiking solution to the sample in the flask, and attach the flask to the vacuum
distillation apparatus. 25-mL aliquots may be used to achieve lower quantitation levels
without necessitating recalibration using 25-mL standard solutions.

11.1.2 Solid and soil samples

In order to minimize potential target analyte losses, an approximately 5-g aliquot of
sample should be extruded with minimal exposure to the air directly from a suitable
sample collection device into the tared sample chamber and immediately capped in order
to attain the sample weight. Once the sample chamber is weighed, quickly remove the
cap and add 5 礚 of the internal standard spiking solution to the sample in the flask, and
attach the flask to the vacuum distillation apparatus. Refer to Method 5035 for more
information on sample collection and handling options, i.e., an empty vial approach or an
approved coring device for volatile organic compounds that would applicable to this
determinative technique.

NOTE: The tared sample chamber or flask weight must also include the cap
device. The sample weight can then be obtained by subtracting the tared
flask plus cap weight from the flask and cap plus sample weight.




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11.1.2.1 Determination of percent dry weight -- When sample results
are to be calculated on a dry weight basis, e.g., for fish tissue, a second aliquot of
sample (5 - 10 g) must be collected.

WARNING: The drying oven should be contained in a hood or be vented.
Significant laboratory contamination may result from drying a
heavily contaminated sample.

Dry this aliquot overnight at 105E C. Allow it to cool in a desiccator before
weighing. Calculate the % dry weight as described in Sec. 11.11.6.

11.1.2.2 If necessary, at least one additional aliquot of sample must be
collected for high concentration analysis.

11.1.3 Tissue samples

Tissue samples which are fleshy may have to be minced into small pieces to get
them through the neck of the sample chamber. This is best accomplished by freezing the
sample in liquid nitrogen before any additional processing takes place. Biota containing
leaves and other softer samples may be minced using clean scissors. Weigh out a 5-g
aliquot and then rapidly transfer it to the sample chamber. Add 5 礚 of the internal
standard spiking solution to the sample in the flask, and attach the flask to the vacuum
distillation apparatus.

11.1.4 Oil samples

Weigh out 0.2 to 1.0 g of oil, and then rapidly transfer it to the sample chamber.
Add 5 礚 of the internal standard spiking solution to the sample in the flask, and attach the
flask to the vacuum distillation apparatus.

11.2 Establish the vacuum distillation operating conditions, using the following
information as guidance.

11.2.1 All vacuum distiller lines should be heated sufficiently to minimize analyte
carryover. The condenser column temperature should be set to a temperature that allows
0.3-0.5g of water from a 5 ml water sample to be distilled in 7.5 min or less. The
temperature of the cryotrap and transfer time are predetermined by the analyst as that
necessary to provide well resolved chromatographic peaks and sensitivity of analytes.
One routine for optimizing condenser and cryotrap temperature and transfer time is
available from the EPA
(http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/vacuum/training/default.htm, "Tuning the Vacuum
Distiller, Optimizing Analyte Response and Chromatography")

11.2.2 Recommended vacuum distillation operating conditions

-5 EC to + 5 EC
Condenser1:
95 EC
Condenser bakeout:
- 150 EC
Cryotrap:
100 EC to 150 EC
Cryotrap desorb1:
200 EC
Cryotrap bakeout:
150 EC to 200 EC
Multiport valve:
150 EC to 200 EC
Transfer to GC line:
System and autosampler lines: 95 EC
Vacuum distillation time: 7.5 min.

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Transfer time 1: 3 min. to 6 min.
nitrogen flush condenser of water: 7 min.
System flush cycles: 16
Nitrogen inlet time: 0.05 to 0.1 min.
Evacuation time: 1.2 min.
Log sampling2: per 15 sec.
1
Set parameter or optimize as per vendor instructions.
2
An electronic log file of all system readings should be saved as per vendor instructions.

11.2.3 Setting the transfer time and the desorb temperature is
related to the chromatographic conditions used. Using shorter transfer times and lower
desorb temperatures tend to minimize water transfer to the column and provide improved
resolution of polar analytes. Higher desorb temperatures and longer transfer times tend to
maximize analyte response.

11.3 Recommended chromatographic conditions are provided as examples based on an
assortment of analyses used to generate performance data for this method. The actual
conditions will ultimately be dependent on the compounds of interest, instrument, and column
manufacturer's guidelines. The maximum temperatures of operation should always be verified
with the specific manufacturer. Conditions can be changed significantly if compounds of
interest are within a narrow range of boiling points and/or relative volatility.

11.3.1 Column 1 with jet separator. The following are example conditions which
may vary depending on the instrument and column manufacturer's recommendations:

Carrier gas (He) flow rate: 4 mL/min
Column: VOCOL (3FL film), 60m x 0.53 mm
Initial temperature: -25EC, hold for 4 minutes
Temperature Ramp #1: 50 EC/min to 40 EC
Temperature Ramp #2: 5 EC/min to 120 EC
Temperature Ramp #3: 20 EC/min to 220 EC
220 EC, hold for 6 min
Final column temperature:
Jet separator temperature: 210EC

11.3.2 Column 2 with split interface. The following are example conditions which
may vary depending on the instrument and column manufacturer's recommendations:

Carrier gas (He) flow rate: 2 mL/min
Column: Rtx-VMS (1.4FL film), 60m x 0.25 mm
Initial temperature: -25EC, hold for 2 minutes
Temperature Ramp #1: 50 EC/min to 40 EC
Temperature Ramp #2: 5 EC/min to 120 EC
Temperature Ramp #3: 20 EC/min to 220 EC
220 EC, hold for 7 min
Final column temperature:
Split ratio: 5:1

11.3.3 Column 3 with split interface. The following are example conditions which
may vary depending on the instrument and column manufacturer's recommendations:

Carrier gas (He) flow rate: 1.5 mL/min
Column: VOCOL (1.5FL film), 60m x 0.25 mm
Initial temperature: -20EC, hold for 2.5 minutes
Temperature Ramp #1: 40 EC/min to 60 EC

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Temperature Ramp #2: 5 EC/min to 120 EC
Temperature Ramp #3: 20 EC/min to 220 EC
220 EC, hold for 9 min
Final column temperature:
Split ratio: 10:1

11.4 Initial calibration

11.4.1 Summary - The initial calibration is a multi-step function that ultimately
determines the concentration to response (area or height) relationship. It is based upon
the relationships of predicted recoveries (R) to boiling points (BP) and relative volatility
(RV). The combined BP and RV relationships are used to modify the concentration to

the average response factor (&&). The sequence of the initial calibration follows:
response relationships. Concentrations to response relationships are described by using
RF

11.4.1.1 The mass spectrometer is hardware-tuned and verified with
BFB.

11.4.1.2 Multiple concentration levels of initial calibration standards are
analyzed.

11.4.1.3 A reference sample (usually a blank) is analyzed to establish
the reference upon which the internal standard (IS) responses for the initial
calibration are made. The ratios of the responses (areas or heights) from the
calibration to the reference are called the IS measured recoveries.

11.4.1.4 The first pass (FP) relationships use compounds of near
boiling points to approximate the relative volatility effects over the narrow range
bracketed by the FP internal standards.

11.4.1.5 The relationships of the BP internal standards to their FP
corrected measured recoveries are used to make corrections of the measured
recoveries of the relative volatility (RV) internal standards.

11.4.1.6 The relationships of RV internal standards to their BP
corrected measured recoveries are used to establish corrections based upon RV.

11.4.1.7 A total matrix correction (RT) is determined as the product of
the BP (R) and RV (R) corrections.


The average && is used to calculate the all subsequent sample results.
11.4.1.8 The response factor (RF) is determined by incorporating RT.
RF

11.4.1.9 When using least squares regression (LSR) to develop the
calibration model, it is recommended that x = concentration and y = response/RT.

11.4.2 GC/MS operating conditions and tuning

11.4.2.1 Establish the GC/MS operating conditions, using the following
as guidance:

Mass range: From m/z 35 - 270
Sampling rate: To result in at least five full mass spectra across
the peak but not to exceed 1 second per mass
spectrum

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Source temperature: According to manufacturer's specifications
Ion trap only: Set axial modulation, manifold temperature, and
emission current to manufacturer's
recommendations

11.4.2.2 The GC/MS system must be hardware-tuned such that
injecting 50 ng or less of BFB meets the manufacturer's specified acceptance
criteria or as listed in Table 2. The tuning criteria as outlined in Table 2 were
developed using quadrupole mass spectrometer instrumentation and it is
recognized that other tuning criteria may be more effective depending on the type
of instrumentation, e.g., Time-of-Flight, Ion Trap, etc. In these cases it would be
appropriate to follow the manufacturer's tuning instructions or some other
consistent tuning criteria. However no matter which tuning criteria is selected, the
system calibration must not begin until the tuning acceptance criteria are met with
the sample analyses performed under the same conditions as the calibration
standards.

11.4.2.2.1 In the absence of specific recommendations on
how to acquire the mass spectrum of BFB from the instrument
manufacturer, the following approach should be used: Three scans (the
peak apex scan and the scans immediately preceding and following the
apex) are acquired and averaged. Background subtraction is required,
and must be accomplished using a single scan acquired within 20 scans
of the elution of BFB. The background subtraction should be designed
only to eliminate column bleed or instrument background ions. Do not
subtract part of the BFB peak or any other discrete peak that does not
coelute with BFB.

11.4.2.2.2 Use the BFB mass intensity criteria in the
manufacturer's instructions as primary tuning acceptance criteria or those
in Table 2 as default tuning acceptance criteria if the primary tuning
criteria are not available. Alternatively, other documented tuning criteria
may be used (e.g., CLP, Method 524.2, or manufacturer's instructions),
provided that method performance is not adversely affected. The analyst
is always free to choose criteria that are tighter than those included in this
method or to use other documented criteria provided they are used
consistently throughout the initial calibration, calibration verification, and
sample analyses.

NOTE: All subsequent standards, samples, MS/MSDs, LCSs, and
blanks associated with a BFB analysis must use identical
mass spectrometer instrument conditions.

11.4.3 Set up the sample introduction system as described (see Sec. 11.1). A
different calibration curve is necessary for each method because of the differences in
conditions and equipment. A set of at least five different concentration levels of calibration
standards is necessary (see Sec. 7.12 and Method 8000). Calibration must be performed
using the same sample introduction technique as that used for samples.

11.4.3.1 To prepare a calibration standard, add an appropriate volume
of a secondary dilution standard solution to an aliquot of organic-free reagent water
in a volumetric flask. Use a microsyringe and rapidly inject the alcoholic standard
into the expanded area of the filled volumetric flask underneath the surface of the
reagent water. Remove the needle as quickly as possible after injection and dilute

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to the volume mark with additional reagent water. Mix by inverting the flask three
times only. Discard the contents contained in the neck of the flask. Aqueous
standards are not stable and should be prepared daily. Transfer 5.0 mL (or 25 mL
if lower detection limits are required) of each standard to a gas tight syringe along
with 10 礚 of internal standard. Then transfer the contents to the appropriate
device or syringe. Some of the introduction methods may have specific guidance
on the volume of calibration standard and the way the standards are transferred to
the device.

11.4.3.2 The stability of the gas chromatograph (GC) is demonstrated
by comparing the retention times of the components of interest to their respective
retention time (RT) reference standards. Choose a RT reference standard that has
similar polarity properties as the component of interest and a relative retention time
(RRT) in the range of 0.80 to 1.20. Examples of RT reference standards are
1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dioxane-d8, acetophenone-d5,
diethyl ether-d10, fluorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene.

11.4.3.3 Use the base peak ion from the standard, surrogate, or
component of interest as the primary ion for quantitation (see Table 3). If
interferences are noted, use the next most intense ion as the quantitation ion.

11.4.3.4 A reagent blank is analyzed to obtain reference responses for
the BP and RV internal standards. Other reference responses may be used such
as the average responses of the initial calibration, any single calibration level,
laboratory fortified blank, etc. but a reagent blank is recommended.

11.4.4 Response factor calculations

11.4.4.1 Tabulate the responses of the quantitation ions of the BP and
RV internal standards (see Table 3 and Table 6). Calculate the internal standard
measured recoveries using the ratio of calibration internal standard response to
reference (usually a reagent blank) internal standard response. The internal
standard measured recovery follows:



ACal
measured recovery '
ARef

where:

ACal = Peak area (or height) of the internal standard of the calibration.
ARef = Peak area (or height) of the internal standard of the reference.


11.4.4.2 Tabulate the area response of the characteristic ions (see
Table 3) against the concentration for each target analyte, each internal standard,
and each surrogate standard. Calculate response factors (RF) for each compound
relative to its predicted recovery by the internal standards. See sec. 12 for
detailed explanation.

The RF is calculated as follows:



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As
RF '
RT ?Cs
where:

As = Peak area (or height) of the analyte.
Cs = Concentration of the analyte or surrogate.
RT = Predicted recovery of analyte.

11.4.4.3 Calculate the mean response factor and the relative standard
deviation(RSD) of the response factors for each target analyte using the following
equations. The RSD should be less than or equal to 20% for each volatile target
analyte, less than or equal to 25% of each semivolatile or non-purgeable analyte
(Sec 7.6). It is also recommended that a minimum response factor for the most
common target analytes as noted in Table 9, be demonstrated for each individual
calibration level as a means to ensure that these compounds are behaving as
expected. In addition, meeting the minimum response factor criteria for the lowest
calibration standard is critical in establishing and demonstrating the desired
sensitivity. Due to the large number of compounds that may be analyzed by this
method, some compounds will fail to meet these criteria. For these occasions, it is
acknowledged that the failing compounds may not be critical to the specific project
and therefore they may be used as qualified data or estimated values for screening
purposes. The analyst should also strive to place more emphasis on meeting the
calibration criteria for those compounds that are critical project compounds, rather
than meeting the criteria for those less important compounds.




j RFi
n

j (RFi&RF)
n
2
i'1
mean RF ' RF ' i'1
SD '
n n&1



SD
RSD ' ?100
RF




where:

RFi = RF for each of the calibration standards
&& = mean RF for each compound from the initial calibration
RF
n = Number of calibration standards, e.g., 5

11.4.4.4 If more than 10% of the targeted volatile compounds included
with the initial calibration exceed the 20% RSD limit, the chromatographic system
is considered too reactive for analysis to begin. Clean or replace the injector liner
and/or capillary column, then repeat the calibration procedure beginning with Sec.
11.4.

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11.4.4.5 If more than 20% of the targeted semivolatile compounds
includedwith the initial calibration exceed the 25% RSD limit, the vacuum
distiller/chromatographic system is considered too reactive for analysis to begin.
Verify the vacuum distillation of each analysis is consistent:

? Water volatilized from sample 0.3 to 0.5 g
? Temperature readings of all components are as set

If no cause for the variation is found, verify the vacuum distiller transfer and desorb
temperatures are appropriate for the GC/capillary column conditions, then repeat
the calibration procedure beginning with Sec. 11.4.

11.4.4.6 If more than 20% of the targeted non-purgeable compounds
included with the initial calibration exceed the 25% RSD limit, the vacuum
distiller/chromatographic system is considered too reactive for analysis to begin.
Verify the vacuum distillation of each analysis is consistent:

? Water volatilized from sample 0.3 to 0.5 g
? Temperature readings of all components are as set

Some of the polar compounds exhibit poor chromatography on columns intended
for volatile compound separations. For these compounds, the presence of
increasing amounts of water being transferred from the vacuum distiller can
attenuate the response or degrade the chromatography to such an extent that
integration is not straight-forward. Decreasing the amount of water introduced on-
column (shorten transfer time, lower desorb temperature, or increase split-flow)
should improve the chromatography. After corrective action is taken, repeat the
calibration procedure beginning with Sec. 11.4.

11.4.5 Evaluation of retention times - The relative retention time (RRT) of each
target analyte in each calibration standard should agree within 0.06 RRT units.
Late-eluting target analytes usually have much better agreement. The RRT is calculated
as follows:


Retention time of the analyte
RRT '
Retention time of the internal standard


11.4.6 Linearity of target analytes - If the RSD of any target analyte is 20% or
less, then the relative response factor is assumed to be constant over the calibration
range, and the average relative response factor may be used for quantitation (Sec. 11.7).

11.4.6.1 If the RSD of any target analyte is greater than 20%, refer to
Method 8000 for additional calibration options. One of the options must be applied

performed. The average && should not be used for compounds that have an RSD
to GC/MS calibration in this situation, or a new initial calibration must be
RF
greater than 20% unless the concentration is reported as estimated.

11.4.6.2 When the RSD exceeds 20%, the plotting and visual
inspection of a calibration curve can be a useful diagnostic tool. Inspection of the
calibration curve can also be done by obtaining the differences between the
expected concentrations and the re-calculated concentrations of each calibration
level (see Method 8000 for details). The inspection may indicate analytical

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problems, including errors in standard preparation, the presence of active sites in
the chromatographic system, analytes that exhibit poor chromatographic behavior,
etc.

11.4.6.3 Due to the large number of compounds that may be analyzed
by this method, some compounds may fail to meet either the 20% RSD (25% for
the semivolatile and non-purgeable analytes). If compounds fail to meet these
criteria, the associated concentrations may still be determined but they must be
reported as estimated. In order to report non-detects, it must be demonstrated that
there is adequate sensitivity to detect the failed compounds at the applicable lower
quantitation limit.

11.4.6.4 This method generates a rough approximation of the
confidence intervals for reported concentrations; the RSD is used in this rough
approximation (Sec 12.4).

11.4.6.5 The more polar analytes (i.e., aniline and pyridine) exhibit
subtle variations in sensitivity by capillary column. The
calibration ranges for these compounds, therefor are not the
same for all column selections and there are instances where
the lower concentration calibration points may not provide a
measurable response. For these instances the lower
calibration points are not to be used and the limits of
quantitation increased to reflect the change.

11.5 GC/MS calibration verification - Calibration verification consists of three steps that
are performed at the beginning of each 12-hour analytical shift.

11.5.1 Prior to the analysis of samples or calibration standards, inject or
introduce 50 ng or less of the 4-bromofluorobenzene standard into the GC/MS system.
The resultant mass spectra for the BFB must meet the criteria as outlined in Sec. 11.4.2
before sample analysis begins. These criteria must be demonstrated each 12-hour shift
during which samples are analyzed.

11.5.2 The initial calibration curve should be verified immediately after
performing the standard analyses using a second source standard (prepared using
standards different from the calibration standards) spiked into organic-free reagent water
with a concentration preferably at the midpoint of the initial calibration range. The
suggested acceptance limits for this initial calibration verification analysis are 70 - 130%.
Alternative acceptance limits may be appropriate based on the desired project-specific
data quality objectives. Quantitative sample analyses should not proceed for those
analytes that fail the second source standard initial calibration verification. However,
analyses may continue for those analytes that fail the criteria with an understanding these
results could be used for screening purposes and would be considered estimated values.

11.5.3 The initial calibration (Sec. 11.4) for each compound of interest should be
verified once every 12 hours prior to sample analysis, using the introduction technique and
conditions used for samples. This is accomplished by analyzing a calibration standard at
a concentration near the midpoint concentration for the calibrating range of the GC/MS.
The results must be compared against the most recent initial calibration curve and should
meet the verification acceptance criteria provided in Sec. 11.5.5.




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NOTE: The BFB and calibration verification standard may be combined into a
single standard as long as both tuning and calibration verification
acceptance criteria for the project can be met without interferences.

11.5.4 A method blank should be analyzed prior to sample analyses in order to
ensure that the total system (introduction device, transfer lines and GC/MS system) is free
of contaminants. If the method blank indicates contamination, then it may be appropriate
to analyze a solvent blank to demonstrate that the contamination is not a result of
carryover from standards or samples. See Method 8000 for method blank performance
criteria.

11.5.5 GC/MS Calibration verification standard criteria

11.5.5.1 Each of the most common target analytes in the calibration
verification standard should meet the minimum response factors as noted in Table
9. This criterion is particularly important when the common target analytes are also
critical project-required compounds. This is the same check that is applied during
the initial calibration.

11.5.5.2 If the minimum response factors are not met, the system
should be evaluated, and corrective action should be taken before sample analysis
begins. Possible problems include standard mixture degradation, injection port
inlet contamination, contamination at the front end of the analytical column, and
active sites in the column or chromatographic system.

11.5.5.3 All volatile compounds of interest must be evaluated using a
20% variability criterion (25% for the semivolatile and non-purgeable as defined in
Sec 7.6). Use percent difference when performing the average response factor
model calibration.

11.5.5.4 If the percent difference or percent drift for a volatile
compound is less than or equal to 20% (25% for the semivolatile and non-
purgeable compounds), then the initial calibration for that compound is assumed to
be valid. Due to the large numbers of compounds that may be analyzed by this
method, some compounds will fail to meet the criteria. If the criterion is not met
(i.e., greater than 20% difference or drift) for more than 20% of the compounds
included in the initial calibration, then corrective action must be taken prior to the
analysis of samples. In cases where compounds fail, they may still be reported as
non-detects if it can be demonstrated that there was adequate sensitivity to detect
the compound at the applicable quantitation limit. For situations when the failed
compound is present, the concentrations must be reported as estimated values.

11.5.5.5 Problems similar to those listed under initial calibration could
affect the ability to pass the calibration verification standard analysis. If the
problem cannot be corrected by other measures, a new initial calibration must be
generated. The calibration verification criteria must be met before sample analysis
begins.

11.5.5.6 When calculating the calibration curves using the linear
regression model, a minimum quantitation check on the viability of that curve
should be performed using the response from the low concentration calibration
standard. The calculated concentration of the low calibration point should be
within ?30% of the standard true concentration. Other recovery criteria may be
applicable depending on the project's data quality objectives and for those

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situations the minimum quantitation check criteria should be outlined in a
laboratory standard operating procedure.

11.5.6 Internal standard retention time - The retention times of the internal
standards in the calibration verification standard must be evaluated immediately after or
during data acquisition. If the retention time for any internal standard changes by more
than 30 seconds from that in the mid-point standard level of the most recent initial
calibration sequence, then the chromatographic system must be inspected for
malfunctions and corrections must be made, as required. When corrections are made,
reanalysis of samples analyzed while the system was malfunctioning is required.

11.5.7 Internal standard response - If the EICP area for any of the volatile
internal standards in the calibration verification standard changes by a factor of two (-50%
to + 100%) from that in the mid-point standard level of the most recent initial calibration
sequence, the mass spectrometer must be inspected for malfunctions and corrections
must be made, as appropriate. When corrections are made, reanalysis of samples
analyzed while the system was malfunctioning is required.

11.6 GC/MS analysis of samples

11.6.1 Summary -The analysis of samples is a multi-step function which uses
the average response factors to determine sample concentrations. It is also based upon
the relationships of predicted recoveries (R) to boiling points (BP) and relative volatility
(RV). The combined BP and RV relationships are used to calculate sample concentration.
Uncertainties described as standard deviations and errors of determination can be
obtained from this method and used to develop approximate uncertainties surrounding the
calculated sample concentration.

11.6.1.1 Samples are prepared as per Sec. 11.1 and analyzed by
GC/MS.

11.6.1.2 The measured recoveries of the internal standards are
calculated using the responses from the sample analysis, the average response
factors, and the amount of internal standards added to the sample.

11.6.1.3 The first pass (FP) relationships use compounds of near
boiling points to approximate the relative volatility effects over the narrow range
bracketed by the FP internal standards.

11.6.1.4 The relationships of the BP internal standards to their FP
corrected measured recoveries are used to make corrections of the measured
recoveries of the relative volatility (RV) internal standards.

11.6.1.5 The relationships of RV internal standards to their BP
corrected measured recoveries are used to establish corrections based upon RV.

11.6.1.6 A total matrix correction (RT) is determined as the product of
the BP (R) and RV (R) corrections.

11.6.1.7 The concentration is calculated from the response of the
target, average response factor, and RT. The error of determinations from the BP
and RV corrections can be propagated along with the standard deviation of the
average response factor to determine the approximate uncertainty of the calculated
concentration.

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11.6.2 It is highly recommended that the sample be screened to minimize
contamination of the GC/MS system from unexpectedly high concentrations of organic
compounds. Some of the screening options available utilizing SW-846 methods are
screening solid samples for volatile organics (Method 3815), automated
headspace-GC/FID (Methods 5021/8015), automated headspace-GC/PID/ELCD (Methods
5021/8021), or waste dilution-GC/PID/ELCD (Methods 3585/8021) using the same type of
capillary column. When used only for screening purposes, the quality control
requirements in the methods above may be reduced as appropriate. Sample screening is
particularly important when Method 8261 is used to achieve low detection levels.

11.6.3 BFB tuning criteria and GC/MS calibration verification criteria must be met
before analyzing samples.

11.6.4 All samples and standard solutions must be allowed to warm to ambient
temperature before analysis. Set up the vacuum distiller as in the calibration analyses.

11.6.5 The process of taking an aliquot destroys the validity of the remaining
volume of an aqueous sample for future analysis when target analytes are at low
concentration and taking the aliquot leaves significant headspace in the sample vial.
Higher concentration samples, for example those which need to be diluted before analysis
at a 5-mL purge volume, often show no detectable changes when a small aliquot is
removed, the sample vial is immediately recapped, and the same vial reanalyzed at a later
time. It is best practice not to analyze a sample vial repeatedly. Therefore, if only one
VOA vial of a relatively clean aqueous matrix such as tap water is provided to the
laboratory, to protect against possible loss of sample data, the analyst should prepare two
aliquots for analysis at this time. A second aliquot in a syringe is maintained only until
such time when the analyst has determined that the first sample has been analyzed
properly. For aqueous samples, one 20-mL syringe could be used to hold two 5-mL
aliquots. If the second aliquot is to be taken from the syringe, it must be analyzed within
24 hours. Care must be taken to prevent air from leaking into the syringe.

11.6.6 Remove the plunger from a 5-mL syringe and attach a closed syringe
valve. Open the sample or standard bottle, which has been allowed to come to ambient
temperature, and carefully pour the sample into the syringe barrel to just short of
overflowing. Replace the syringe plunger and invert before compressing the sample.
Open the syringe valve and vent any residual air while adjusting the sample volume to 5.0
mL. If lower detection limits are required, use a 25-mL syringe, and adjust the final volume
to 25.0 mL. The sample aliquot and the internal standard/surrogates are injected into the
sample vessel. The sample vessel is attached to the vacuum distiller port taking care that
the O-ring seal is free of debris and properly seated.

NOTE: For most applications pouring a sample aliquot directly into the syringe is
preferred in order to minimize the loss of volatile constituents, however
when smaller volumes are necessary to prepare dilutions, drawing the
sample directly into the syringe is considered acceptable.

11.6.7 The following procedure may be used to dilute aqueous samples for
analysis of volatiles. All steps must be performed without delays, until the diluted sample
is in a gas-tight syringe.

11.6.7.1 Dilutions may be made in volumetric flasks (10- to 100-mL).
Select the volumetric flask that will allow for the necessary dilution. Intermediate
dilution steps may be necessary for extremely large dilutions.

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11.6.7.2 Calculate the approximate volume of organic-free reagent
water to be added to the volumetric flask, and add slightly less than this quantity of
organic-free reagent water to the flask.

11.6.7.3 Inject the appropriate volume of the original sample from the
syringe into the flask underneath the reagent water surface. Aliquots of less than 1
mL are not recommended. Dilute the sample to the mark with organic-free reagent
water. Cap the flask, invert, and shake three times. Repeat this procedure for
additional dilutions.

11.6.7.4 Fill a 5-mL syringe with the diluted sample, as described in
Sec. 11.6.6. Should smaller sample volumes be necessary to prepare dilutions,
drawing the sample directly into the syringe is considered acceptable.

11.6.7.5 Systems with autosamplers allow the user to perform
automated dilutions. Refer to instrument manufacturer's instructions for more
information. In addition, if an autosampler is used to perform sample dilutions,
before using the autosampler to dilute samples, the laboratory should satisfy itself
that those dilutions are of equivalent or better accuracy than is achieved by an
experienced analyst performing manual dilutions.

11.6.8 Compositing aqueous samples prior to GC/MS analysis

11.6.8.1 The following compositing options may be considered
depending on the sample composition and desired data quality objectives:

11.6.8.1.1 Flask compositing - for this procedure, a 300 to
500 mL round-bottom flask is immersed in an ice bath. The individual
VOA grab samples, maintained at <6EC, are slowly poured into the round-
bottom flask. The flask is swirled slowly to mix the individual grab
samples. After mixing, multiple aliquots of the composited sample are
poured into VOA vials and sealed for subsequent analysis. An aliquot
can also be poured into a syringe for immediate analysis.

11.6.8.1.2 Purge device compositing - Equal volumes of
individual grab samples are added to a purge device to a total volume of
5 or 25 mL. The sample is then analyzed.

11.6.8.1.3 Syringe compositing - In the syringe compositing
procedure, equal volumes of individual grab samples are aspirated into a
25 mL syringe while maintaining zero headspace in the syringe. Either
the total volume in the syringe or an aliquot is subsequently analyzed.
The disadvantage of this technique is that the individual samples must be
poured carefully in an attempt to achieve equal volumes of each. An
alternate procedure uses multiple 5 mL syringes that are filled with the
individual grab samples and then injected sequentially into the 25 mL
syringe. If less than five samples are used for compositing, a
proportionately smaller syringe may be used, unless a 25-mL sample is to
be purged.

11.6.8.2 Introduce the composited sample into vacuum distiller. (see
Sec. 11.1)




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11.6.9 Add appropriate volumes of the surrogate spiking solution and the internal
standard spiking solution to each sample either manually or by autosampler to achieve the
desired concentrations. The surrogate and internal standards may be mixed and added
as a single spiking solution.

If a more sensitive mass spectrometer is employed to achieve lower quantitation
levels, more dilute surrogate and internal standard solutions may be required.

11.6.10 Add the laboratory control sample (LCS) to a clean matrix. See Sec. 9.5
and Method 5000 for more guidance on the selection and preparation of the LCS.

11.6.10.1 If a more sensitive mass spectrometer is employed to achieve
lower quantitation levels, more dilute LCS solutions may be required.


11.6.11 The vacuum distiller should be operated as specified by the vendor or
established by the analyst . See section 11.2.1 for guidance on vacuum distiller settings.
Be sure that all connections are complete and sealed properly. Vacuum distiller log files
should be saved and given file names that allow unique identification. Log files should be
considered analytical documentation.

11.6.12 If the initial analysis of the sample or a dilution of the sample has a
concentration of any analyte that exceeds the upper limit of the initial calibration range, the
sample must be reanalyzed at a higher dilution. Secondary ion quantitation is allowed
only when there are sample interferences with the primary ion.

11.6.12.1 When ions from a compound in the sample saturate the
detector, this analysis must be followed by the analysis of an organic-free reagent
water blank. If the blank analysis is not free of interferences, then the system must
be decontaminated (see vendor instructions for decontamination routines).
Sample analysis may not resume until the blank analysis is demonstrated to be
free of interferences. Depending on the extent of the decontamination procedures,
recalibration may be necessary.

11.6.12.2 All dilutions should keep the response of the major
constituents (previously saturated peaks) in the upper half of the linear range of the
curve.

11.6.13 The use of selected ion monitoring (SIM) is acceptable for applications
requiring quantitation limits below the normal range of electron impact mass spectrometry.
However, SIM may provide a lesser degree of confidence in the compound identification,
since less mass spectral information is available. Using the primary ion for quantitation
and the secondary ions for confirmation set up the collection groups based on their
retention times. The selected ions are nominal ions and most compounds have small
mass defect, usually less than 0.2 amu, in their spectra. These mass defects should be
used in the acquisition table. The dwell time may be automatically calculated by the
laboratory's GC/MS software or manually calculated using the following formula. The total
scan time should be less than 1,000 msec and produce at least 5 to 10 scans per
chromatographic peak. The start and stop times for the SIM groups are determined from
the full scan analysis using the formula below:

Laboratory's Scan Time (msec)
Dwell Time for the Group =
Total Ions in the Group

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11.7 Analyte identification

11.7.1 The qualitative identification of each compound determined by this
method is based on retention time, and on comparison of the sample mass spectrum, after
background correction, with characteristic ions in a reference mass spectrum. The
reference mass spectrum must be generated by the laboratory using the conditions of this
method. The characteristic ions from the reference mass spectrum are defined to be the
three ions of greatest relative intensity, or any ions over 30% relative intensity if less than
three such ions occur in the reference spectrum. Compounds are identified as being
present when the following criteria are met.

11.7.1.1 The intensities of the characteristic ions of a compound
maximize in the same scan or within one scan of each other. Selection of a peak
by a data system target compound search routine where the search is based on
the presence of a target chromatographic peak containing ions specific for the
target compound at a compound-specific retention time will be accepted as
meeting this criterion.

11.7.1.2 The relative retention time (RRT) of the sample component is
within ?0.06 RRT units of the RRT of the standard component.

11.7.1.3 The relative intensities of the characteristic ions agree within
30% of the relative intensities of these ions in the reference spectrum. (Example:
For an ion with an abundance of 50% in the reference spectrum, the corresponding
abundance in a sample spectrum can range between 20% and 80%.)

11.7.1.4 Structural isomers that produce very similar mass spectra
should be identified as individual isomers if they have sufficiently different GC
retention times. Sufficient GC resolution is achieved if the height of the valley
between two isomer peaks is less than 50% of the average of the two peak
heights. Otherwise, structural isomers are identified as isomeric pairs. The
resolution should be verified on the mid-point concentration of the initial calibration
as well as the laboratory designated continuing calibration verification level if
closely eluting isomers are to be reported.

11.7.1.5 Identification is hampered when sample components are not
resolved chromatographically and produce mass spectra containing ions
contributed by more than one analyte. When gas chromatographic peaks
obviously represent more than one sample component (i.e., a broadened peak with
shoulder(s) or a valley between two or more maxima), appropriate selection of
analyte spectra and background spectra is important.

11.7.1.6 Examination of extracted ion current profiles (EICP) of
appropriate ions can aid in the selection of spectra, and in qualitative identification
of compounds. When analytes coelute (i.e., only one chromatographic peak is
apparent), the identification criteria may be met, but each analyte spectrum will
contain extraneous ions contributed by the coeluting compound.

11.7.2 For samples containing components not associated with the calibration
standards, a library search may be made for the purpose of tentative identification. The
necessity to perform this type of identification will be determined by the purpose of the

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analyses being conducted. Data system library search routines should not use
normalization routines that would misrepresent the library or unknown spectra when
compared to each other.

For example, the RCRA permit or waste delisting requirements may require the
reporting of non-target analytes. Only after visual comparison of sample spectra with the
nearest library searches may the analyst assign a tentative identification. Use the
following guidelines for making tentative identifications:

(1) Relative intensities of major ions in the reference spectrum (ions greater
than 10% of the most abundant ion) should be present in the sample
spectrum.

(2) The relative intensities of the major ions should agree within ?20%.
(Example: For an ion with an abundance of 50% in the standard
spectrum, the corresponding sample ion abundance must be between 30
and 70%).

(3) Molecular ions present in the reference spectrum should be present in the
sample spectrum.

(4) Ions present in the sample spectrum but not in the reference spectrum
should be reviewed for possible background contamination or presence of
coeluting compounds.

(5) Ions present in the reference spectrum but not in the sample spectrum
should be reviewed for possible subtraction from the sample spectrum
because of background contamination or coeluting peaks. Data system
library reduction programs can sometimes create these discrepancies.

11.8 Quantitative analysis

11.8.1 Once a compound has been identified, the quantitation of that compound
will be based on the integrated abundance from the EICP of the primary characteristic ion.
The internal standard used shall be the one nearest the retention time of that of a given
analyte.

11.8.1.1 It is highly recommended to use the integration produced by
the software if the integration is correct because the software should produce more
consistent integrations. However, manual integrations are necessary when the
software does not produce the proper integrations due to improper baseline
selection, the correct peak is missed, a coelution is integrated, a peak is partially
integrated, etc. The analyst is responsible for ensuring that the integration is
correct whether performed by the software or done manually.

11.8.1.2 Manual integrations should not be substituted for proper
maintenance of the instrument or setup of the method (e.g. retention time updates,
integration parameter files, etc). The analyst should seek to minimize manual
integration by properly maintaining the instrument, updating retention times, and
configuring peak integration parameters.

11.8.2 If the RSD of a volatile compound's response factor is 20% or less (25%
for semivolatile and non-purgeable compounds), then the concentration in the extract may



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be determined using the average response factor (&&) from initial calibration data (Sec.
RF
11.3.5).

11.8.3 Where applicable, the concentration of any non-target analytes identified
in the sample (Sec. 11.7.2) should be estimated. Tentatively identified non-target analytes
should be determined as in method 8260 using the areas Ax (area of the unknown) and Ais
(area of the most comparable internal standards). The areas should be determined from
the total ion chromatograms, and the RF for the compound should be assumed to be 1.
The resulting concentration should be reported indicating that the value is an estimate.
The boiling point and the relative volatility of the tentatively identified non-target analyte is
unknown thus it is recommended that the nearest internal standard have a relative
volatility of less than 50. This internal standard should also be free of interferences.

11.8.4 Structural isomers that produce very similar mass spectra should be
quantitated as individual isomers if they have sufficiently different GC retention times.
Sufficient GC resolution is achieved if the height of the valley between two isomer peaks is
less than 50% of the average of the two peak heights. Otherwise, structural isomers are
identified as isomeric pairs. The resolution should be verified on the mid-point
concentration of the initial calibration as well as the laboratory designated continuing
calibration verification level if closely eluting isomers are to be reported.


12.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND CALCULATIONS

12.1 The quantitation routine employed in this method differs significantly from that used
in Method 8260 (using the Method 5032 sample preparation). Where Method 8260 uses one
internal standard to correct injection/preparation variations for a given analyte, this method uses
a series of internal standards to define the relationships of compound recoveries to their
physical properties. Those relationships are used to extrapolate target analyte recoveries.
Each target analyte and surrogate is calibrated using an external standard calibration
procedure. The concentration of the analyte in the sample is determined using the predicted
analyte recovery, sample size, and amount of analyte detected by the mass spectrometer. The
relationships are solved using multiple internal standards and the errors associated with the
solutions also calculated.

See Sec. 12.2 for the stepwise procedure to perform the internal standard corrections.
The quantitation algorithms and sequence presented here are available from the EPA at:
http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/vacuum/default.htm

Other internal standard correction approaches may be employed when they have been
demonstrated to improve the assessment of matrix effects. Large samples of biota (10 g or
more) may require that the analyst address the partitioning of analytes between air and the
organic phase. Such an approach is described in References 8 and 9.

12.2 Internal standard Corrections.

This method uses a battery of internal standard whose purpose is to measure and
accordingly compensate (or normalize) the effects a sample matrix has on the recovery of
compounds. It has been shown that a compound's boiling point and relative volatility are the
primary properties that impact the recovery of a compound using this method. The responses
of internal standards in an analysis are compared to calibration responses and their differences
are measured as a function of boiling point and a function of relative volatility. Quantitation of
target analytes and surrogates requires five distinct steps: determination of recovery described
in sec 12.2.1, calculation of the relative volatility effects on the internal standards used to

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measure boiling point effects (also referred to as first-pass corrections) described in Sec.
12.2.2, calculations of the boiling point effects described in Sec. 12.2.3, calculation of the
relative volatility effects described in Sec. 12.2.4, and finally, recovery correction of the quantity
of analyte measured by the mass spectrometer to reflect the matrix effects described Sec.
12.2.5. An explanation of these effects and the use of the following equations are given in
greater detail in References 5 and 6. Software that performs all of the calculations presented is
available from the EPA at: http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/vacuum/default.htm

12.2.1 Determination of the measured recovery of internal standards.

The measured recovery for each internal standard is its MS response divided by its

factor (&&) from the calibration curve multiplied by the amount of the internal standard that
expected response. The expected response is the internal standard's average response
RF
was added to the sample.

The measured recovery for each internal standard for the initial calibration
standards are handled differently. The measured recovery is the ratio of the MS response
divided by the MS response from a reference sample (see Sec. 11.4.4.1).




(As)
measured recovery '
(RF)(amount added)


where:

As = The peak area (or height) of the internal standard in the sample
&& = The average response factor of the internal standard from the initial
RF
calibration

12.2.2 Calculation of relative volatility effects on the boiling point internal
standards

In order to separate the impact of boiling point and relative volatility on the internal
standards, this first pass (FP) correction is limited to defining relative volatility effects over
a limited range that includes the boiling point internal standards (Sec. 7.6.2). These first
pass internal standards should also have similar low boiling points to minimize varying
boiling point effects that would confound measurement of the effects of relative volatility.
The GC/MS response of the boiling point internal standards are corrected for relative
volatility effects using the first pass equations described below. Hexafluorobenzene
(relative volatility =0.86 , boiling point = 81.5EC), fluorobenzene ((relative volatility=3.5 ,
boiling point = 85EC) and 1,2-dichloroethane-d4 ((relative volatility=20 , boiling point =
84EC) are used to describe the first-pass recoveries. Two line equations determine
relative volatility impact on the boiling point internal standards (solution of one line uses
hexafluorobenzene and fluorobenzene and the other fluorobenzene and 1,2-
dichloroethane-d4) with the format:



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RFP ' MFP ?ln(RVIS) % BFP



where:

RFP = The recovery of the internal standard relating to its relative
volatility
ln(RVIS) = The natural logarithm of the relative volatility of the internal
standard
MFP, BFP = Linear least squares regression constants for each analysis



The linear least squares regression constants for the two equations are solved
using the measured recoveries (Sec. 12.2.1) of the three internal standards and their
respective relative volatilities (RV). One equation addresses compounds with relative
volatilities between 0.86 and 3.5 and the other between 3.5 and 20. The measured
recoveries(Sec. 12.2.1)for all of the boiling point internal standards are now corrected for
relative volatility effects by dividing their measured recovery by their respective RFP.



measured recoveryIS
R IS '
MFP ?ln(RVIS) % BFP




12.2.3 Calculation of boiling point effects on recovery

After the first pass normalization, the boiling point internal standards recoveries
reflect just the boiling point effects. The relationship of recovery to boiling point is
described by


R ' M ?bpx % B



where:

=
R The recovery corresponding to the boiling point.
bpx = A compound's boiling point.
M ,B = Linear least squares regression constants for each analysis.

Table 8 identifies the internal standards used for the boiling point corrections. The
solution of the above equation is performed by groupings that cover a range of boiling
point values. Each of the groups have multiple internal standards that allow several

8261A - 38 Revision 1
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solutions to the equation. The linear least squares regression constants for each of these
equations are solved by using the first-pass normalized recovery (R IS) of the boiling point
internal standards and their respective boiling points. These equations also provide a
measurement of the uncertainty (r) in determining the recovery to boiling point functions.
If the boiling point (BP) of a component of interest is outside of the BP range covered by
the groupings then the recovery correction uses defaulted BP values. Use the lowest BP
in the range as a default for BPs below the range. For BPs above the range, use the
average BP of the two highest BPs in the range if there are three or more standards in that
high BP group as the default for BPs otherwise use the highest BP as the default value.
The measured recoveries (Sec. 12.2.1) for all of the relative volatility internal standards
are now corrected for boiling point effects by dividing their measured recovery by their
respective R.


measured recoveryIS
R IS '
M ?bpIS % B



12.2.4 Calculation of the relative volatility effects on recovery

After the recoveries of the relative volatility internal standards are corrected for
boiling point effects, recoveries reflect only matrix effects relating to relative volatility. The
relationship of recovery to relative volatility is described by the following equation:


R ' M ?ln(RVx) % B


where:

R = Recovery corresponding to its relative volatility value.
ln(RVx) = The natural logarithm of the relative volatility of compound, x.
M, B = Linear least squares regression constants for each analysis.

Table 5 identifies the internal standard used for the relative volatility corrections.
The solution of the above equation is performed by groupings that cover a range of
relative volatility values. Each of the groups have multiple internal standard that allow
several solutions to the equation. The linear least squares regression constants for each
of these equations are solved by using the boiling point corrected recovery (Ra IS) of the
relative volatility internal standards and their respective relative volatilities. These
equations also provide a measurement of the uncertainty (r) in determining the recovery
to relative volatility functions. If the relative volatility (RV) of a component of interest is
outside of the RV range covered by the groupings then the recovery correction uses
defaulted RV values. Use the lowest RV in the range as a default for RVs below the
range. For RVs above the range, use the average of the natural logs of RV, ln(RV), of the
two highest RVs in the range if there are three or more standards in that high RV group as
the default for RVs otherwise use the highest RF as the default value.

12.2.5 Correction of analyte response for matrix effects.

The measurement of matrix effects relating to boiling point and relative volatility for
an analysis provide a means to accurately predict the recovery (with uncertainty) of

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analytes within an analysis. The predicted recovery relating to relative volatility for an
analyte is R ?r and the recovery relating to its boiling point is R ?r. The predicted total
relative recovery that includes relative volatility and boiling point effects is:


RT ' R ?R

and
where:
2 2 2
rT r r
' %
RT R R


R,r = Predicted recovery and uncertainty related to relative volatility using
the appropriate grouping described in Table 4 to solve the equation
identified in Sec. 12.2.3.
R,r = Predicted recovery and uncertainty related to boiling point using the
appropriate grouping described in Table 5 to solve the equation
identified in Sec. 12.2.2.
RT,rT = The predicted recovery and its uncertainty of an analyte for the
analysis.


12.3 Calculation of sample concentration

The calculation of the concentration of an analyte in a sample is performed using the
predicted recovery of the analyte as described in 12.2. The determination of the analyte
concentration is as follows:



(As)(D)
concentration '
(RF)(RT)(sample size)



where:

As = Area (or height) of the peak for the analyte in the sample.
D = Dilution factor, if the sample or extract was diluted prior to
analysis. If no dilution was made, D = 1. The dilution factor is

R&
&F
always dimensionless.
= Mean response factor from calibration (area per ng)
RT, = The predicted recovery.

The algorithms used to calculate recoveries are presented in Figure 3. These reports
were generated using the method 8261 software available at:
http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/vacuum/default.htm.




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12.4 Optional reporting of the approximate uncertainty surrounding the calculated
concentration.


Determining the uncertainty of a measurement is an important component of that
measurement. Method 8261 attempts to determine as much of this uncertainty that is practical
from this method. This expression of the uncertainty is considered a very rough approximation
and every laboratory wishing to refine this approach is encouraged to do so.

From the equation that calculates concentration (Sec. 12.3) the following relationship of
uncertainty is derived:




2 2 2 2 2 2
uncertanityA
SDRF rT uncertanitysample size uncertaintyD
uncertainty
' % % % %
x

concentration RT sample size As D
RF




It will be assumed for the purposes of this method that the uncertainties attributable to
sample size, instrument response, and dilutions are considered negligible. Thus the equation to
determine the approximate uncertainty of the calculated concentrations will contain only the
components of calibration using the average response, boiling point, and relative volatility. The
approximating equation is reduced to the following form:




2 2 2
SDRF rT
uncertainty
' %
concentration RT
RF




where:

SD &&
&F
R&
= Standard deviation of the average response factor.
RF
= The average response factor from the initial calibration.
RT = The predicted recovery.
rT = The uncertainty of the predicted recovery.


12.5 Calculation of surrogate recovery

The surrogates are used to monitor the overall performance of the analytical system. The
recovery of each surrogate is calculated in a fashion similar to the analyte concentrations,
correcting the mass spectrometer response for the recoveries of the other surrogates and the
sample size, such that:

8261A - 41 Revision 1
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(As)
recovery '
(RF)(RT)(amount added)




where:


R&
&F
As = Area (or height) of the peak for the analyte in the sample.
= Mean response factor from calibration (area per ng)
RT = The predicted recovery.


Figure 4 illustrates the surrogate report that is obtained using software available from the
following EPA website: http://www.epa.gov/nerlesd1/chemistry/vacuum/default.htm.

12.6 The response of the matrix internal standards may be greatly impacted by the
sample. This method may be applied to unusual and difficult matrices and therefore the
behavior of internal standards is not typically limited to a range of recoveries. Any limitation on
internal standard recoveries should be based on the knowledge of sample matrix and expected
behavior.

12.6.1 The recovery of matrix internal standards may exceed typical recoveries
from calibration solutions.

12.6.1.1 The recovery of an internal standard with elevated relative
volatility values will be greatly enhanced by the presence of salt in water. If
method detection limits or reporting limits were not established for similar behaving
analytes for the particular matrix, it is likely that general method detection limits or
reporting limits will be valid although biased high.

12.6.1.2 The higher boiling point internal standards are susceptible to
larger recovery variations. Elevated recoveries of these internal standards should
be considered as noted in Sec. 12.6.1.1

12.6.1.3 If surrogates meet criteria and analyte responses are within
calibration range (Sec. 12.7) an elevated recovery of internal standards does not
necessarily impact accuracy. Typically the recovery of only the compounds with
higher boiling points or relative volatility values will be those elevated. Should all
internal standard responses be similarly elevated the possibility of inaccurate
internal standard aliquot spike should be investigated.

12.6.2 The recovery of matrix internal standards may fall below typical recovery
from calibration solutions.




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12.6.2.1 Recovery of lipophilic compounds will be greatly depressed by
samples containing elevated levels of organic matter such as biota or sediments.
Method quantitation limits or reporting limits should reflect the matrix.

12.6.2.2 Recovery of many internal standards will be impacted by large
sample sizes. Method quantitation limits or reporting limits should reflect the
sample size.

12.6.2.3 If the recovery of well-behaved matrix internal standards
(relative volatility <100 and boiling point < 150 EC) fall below 50% unexpectedly
(low organic content sample and standard sample size) the analyst should verify
results.

12.6.2.3.1 Inspect sample for obvious variations (particulate
or organic matter).

12.6.2.3.2 Review vacuum distillation log file to ensure
pressure readings are consistent with similar samples. These log files
are generated by vacuum distiller software and record conditions during
each distillation. If low pressure is not reached an improperly seated o-
ring or vacuum failure is likely. If an unusually low vacuum is reached
early in the distillation the presence of a large amount of gas (methane,
CO2) or solvent may be present in the sample.

12.6.2.3.3 If the sample analysis is proven faulty (e.g.,
based on finding as noted in Sec. 12.6.2.3.2) or can not be shown to be
the result of sample matrix, a reanalysis should be performed.

12.6.3 When the matrix impacts an analyte's predicted recovery such that the
reporting limit or method quantitation limit are not justified a revised limit should be
calculated.

12.6.3.1 Reporting limits should be established based on the lower
calibration point. If the predicted recovery of an analyte is low, the normal
reporting limit may not be justified. For instance, if an analyte has a predicted
recovery of 10% due to a matrix effect (water sample with organic residues), the
typical reporting limit for a water sample would be 10 times too low. For analytes
whose standard reporting limit is more than 50% lower than what is justified it
should be corrected to reflect the low recoveries. All analyte reporting limits that
are affected should be flagged.

12.6.3.2 If method quantitation limits are reported by sample these
values should be flagged as noted in Sec. 12.6.3.1

12.6.3.3 Similarly if sample sizes are lower than the standard amount
by more than 50%, the reporting limits should reflect the sample size.

12.6.3.4 Reporting limits may be increased with greater sample sizes if
the analyte recoveries are not depressed more that 50% by the sample increase.
The use of larger sample sizes should be validated based on the desired target

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analyte sensitivity and the ability to calibrate and quantitate at the required
concentration.

12.6.3.5 The recoveries of most compounds from low-organic content
soil are equal to or higher than recoveries from water samples. Therefore the
reporting limits for water samples can typically be applied to soils. For sediment
and soil samples where organic content can be large the lower recovery of
lipophilic compounds is expected and they should be treated as noted in Secs.
12.6.3.1 and 12.6.3.2.

12.6.3.6 Oil and biota samples can pose extreme matrix effects on the
lipophilic compounds.

12.6.3.6.1 Target analyte sensitivity should be based on the
ability to calibrate and quantitate at the required concentration in order to
validate the established reporting limits and to generate expected
recoveries. When the recoveries of analytes are found to fall more than
50% from expected recoveries corrections and flags as described in
Secs. 12.6.3.1 and 12.6.2.2 apply.

12.6.3.6.2 Biota samples may be very limited in amount and
sample amounts may need to be reduced with reporting limits increased
as discussed for water and soil. Note: Biota samples are very susceptible
to contamination during handling and special precautions to limit
exposure to air should be used.

12.7 The mass spectrometer response of an analyte may not be within the calibration
range. The fact that an analyte response is outside calibration is not readily apparent due to the
modulation of response but the matrix internal standards. Therefore, the analytical results for
analytes whose response exceeded the upper calibration response limit should be flagged. The
analytical results for analytes whose response fall below the limit of quantitation should also be
flagged.

12.8 Reporting matrix corrections

A graphical representation of the effect of the sample matrix on the recovery of the
analytes may prove useful in evaluating method performance. Although not required, Figure 3
provides an example of one form of such documentation.


13.0 METHOD PERFORMANCE

13.1 Performance data and related information are provided in SW-846 methods only as
examples and guidance. The data do not represent required performance goals for users of the
methods. Instead, performance goals should be developed on a project-specific basis, and the
laboratory should establish in-house QC performance criteria for the application of this method.

13.2 The recovery of the target analytes spiked into three soils is summarized in Tables
10 and 11, along with the relative error of replicate recovery measurements and the precision of


8261A - 44 Revision 1
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the surrogate recoveries in these spiked samples. These data are provided for guidance
purposes only.

13.3 Recovery data from an oil sample spiked with the target analytes are presented in
Table 12. These data are provided for guidance purposes only.

13.4 Target analytes were spiked into water containing salt, soap, and glycerine, as a
test of the effects of ionic strength, surfactants, etc., on the VD/GC/MS procedure. The
recovery data from these analyses are provided in Tables 13 and 14. These data are provided
for guidance purposes only.

13.5 The recovery of the target analytes spiked into various water volumes is
summarized in Table 15, along with the relative error of replicate recovery measurements.
These data are provided for guidance purposes only.

13.6 Example recovery data from fish tissue using a wide-bore capillary column are
presented in Table 16. These data are provided for guidance purposes only.


14.0 POLLUTION PREVENTION

14.1 Pollution prevention encompasses any technique that reduces or eliminates the
quantity and/or toxicity of waste at the point of generation. Numerous opportunities for pollution
prevention exist in laboratory operations. The EPA has established a preferred hierarchy of
environmental management techniques that places pollution prevention as the management
option of first choice. Whenever feasible, laboratory personnel should use pollution prevention
techniques to address their waste generation. When wastes cannot be feasibly reduced at the
source, the Agency recommends recycling as the next best option.

14.2 For information about pollution prevention that may be applicable to laboratories
and research institutions consult Less is Better: Laboratory Chemical Management for Waste
Reduction available from the American Chemical Society's Department of Government
Relations and Science Policy, 1155 16th St., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036, http://www.acs.org.

14.3 Standards should be prepared in volumes consistent with laboratory use to
minimize the volume of expired standards that will require disposal.


15.0 WASTE MANAGEMENT

The Environmental Protection Agency requires that laboratory waste management
practices be conducted consistent with all applicable rules and regulations. The Agency urges
laboratories to protect the air, water, and land by minimizing and controlling all releases from
hoods and bench operations, complying with the letter and spirit of any sewer discharge permits
and regulations, and by complying with all solid and hazardous waste regulations, particularly
the hazardous waste identification rules and land disposal restrictions. For further information
on waste management, consult The Waste Management Manual for Laboratory Personnel
available from the American Chemical Society at the address listed in Sec. 14.2.



8261A - 45 Revision 1
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16.0 REFERENCES

1. M. H. Hiatt, "Analysis of Fish and Sediment For Volatile Priority Pollutants," Analytical
Chemistry 1981, 53 (9), 1541.

2. M. H. Hiatt, "Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Fish Samples by Vacuum
Distillation and Fused Silica Capillary Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry,"
Analytical Chemistry, 1983, 55 (3), 506.

3. United States Patent 5,411,707, May 2, 1995. "Vacuum Extractor with Cryogenic
Concentration and Capillary Interface," assigned to the United States of America, as
represented by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. Washington,
DC.

4. Michael H. Hiatt, David R. Youngman and Joseph R. Donnelly, "Separation and Isolation
of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Vacuum Distillation with GC/MS Determination,"
Analytical Chemistry, 1994, 66 (6), 905.

5. Michael H. Hiatt and Carole M. Farr, "Volatile Organic Compound Determination Using
Surrogate-Based Correction for Method and Matrix Effects," Analytical Chemistry, 1995,
67 (2), 426.

6. Michael H. Hiatt, "Vacuum Distillation Coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass
Spectrometry for the Analyses of Environmental Samples," Analytical Chemistry, 1996,
67(22), 4044-4052.

7. "The Waste Management Manual for Laboratory Personnel," American Chemical Society,
Department of Government Regulations and Science Policy, Washington, DC.

8. Michael H. Hiatt, "Analyses of Fish Tissue by Vacuum Distillation/Gas
Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry," Analytical Chemistry, 1997, 69(6), 1127-1134.

9. Michael H. Hiatt, "Bioconcentration Factors for Volatile Organic Compounds in
Vegetation," Analytical Chemistry, 1998, 70(5), 851-856.


17.0 TABLES, DIAGRAMS, FLOWCHARTS, AND VALIDATION DATA

The following pages contain the tables and figures referenced by this method.




8261A - 46 Revision 1
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TABLE 1

EXAMPLE CHROMATOGRAPHIC RETENTION TIMES AND LOWER LIMITS OF DETECTION
FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON CAPILLARY COLUMNS



LOCd
Compound Retention Time (minutes)
Column 1a Column 2b Column 2'c (ng, %)


1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane 5.55 5 20
Dichlorodifluoromethane 6.50 6.00 3.13 5
Methyl acetate 6.06 5 20
Carbon disulfide 6.18 5 20
MTBE 6.30 5 20
Chloromethane 7.40 6.54 3.40 5 13
Vinyl Chloride 7.76 6.91 3.93 5 4
Methyl cyclohexane 7.18 5 20
Acetylaldehyde -- 7.38 20 50
Bromomethane 8.70 7.90 4.80 5 22
Cyclohexane 7.91 5 20
Chloroethane 8.85 8.04 -- 1.5 6
Trichlorofluoromethane 9.24 8.45 6.20 0.5 23
Ethanol -- 8.62 60 22
Diethyl ether 9.77 8.93 1 21
Acrolein -- --
30e
Acetone 10.18 9.30 20
1,1-Dichloroethene 10.19 9.40 7.83 0.5 2
t-Butylalcohol -- 9.64 60 7
Iodomethane 10.70 9.91 1 18
Allyl chloride 10.76 9.90 5 13
Acetonitrile 10.59 9.69 2 16
15e
Methylene chloride 10.94 10.09 9.27 20
Methyl t-butyl ether -- 10.22 2 5
Carbon disulfide -- --
Acrylonitrile 11.22 10.27 1 6
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene 11.34 10.40 9.90 0.5 23
di-Isopropyl ether -- 10.74 2 6
1,1-Dichloroethane 12.01 11.08 10.80 0.5 6
Ethyl t-butyl ether -- 11.32 2 3
Methacrylonitrile 13.13 12.06 1 23
Vinyl acetate -- --
2-Butanone 12.70 11.64 20 10
Propionitrile 12.87 11.80 1 20
2,2-Dichloropropane 12.85 11.87 11.87 0.5 5
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene 12.98 11.98 11.93 0.5 5
Chloroform 13.22 12.21 12.60 0.5 14
Bromochloromethane 13.53 12.53 12.37 1.5 3



8261A - 47 Revision 1
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TABLE 1 (cont.)



LOCd
Compound Retention Time (minutes)
a
Column 2b Column 2'c
Column 1 (ng, %)

1,1,1-Trichloroethane 13.85 12.84 12.83 0.5 5
1,1-Dichloropropene 14.10 13.06 13.10 0.5 8
t-Amylmethyl ether -- 13.11 2 12
Carbon tetrachloride 13.85 13.29 13.17 0.5 11
1,2-Dichloroethane 14.61 13.53 13.63 1.5 23
Benzene 14.62 13.59 13.50 1.5 9
Trichloroethene 15.70 14.61 14.80 0.5 15
1,2-Dichloropropane 16.06 14.95 15.20 1.5 8
Methyl methacrylate 16.12 14.85 3 11
Bromodichloromethane 16.55 15.45 15.80 0.5 25
1,4-Dioxane 16.64 15.43 5 23
Dibromomethane 16.69 15.63 5.43 1.5 1
2-Chloroethyl vinyl ether --
4-Methyl-2-pentanone 17.15 15.87 2 1
trans-1,3-Dichloropropene 17.61 16.44 16.70 2.5 5
Toluene 18.27 17.13 17.40 1.5 10
Pyridine 18.40 17.15 25 5
cis-1,3-Dichloropropene 18.69 17.42 17.90 2.5 10
Ethylmethacrylate 18.12 ? 10 5
n-Nitrosodimethylamine 20.00 17.58 2500 25
10e
2-Hexanone 20.30 17.61 5
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 19.03 17.76 18.30 1.5 9
Tetrachloroethene 19.69 18.34 18.60 0.5 17
1,3-Dichloropropane 19.61 18.21 18.70 0.5 12
Dibromochloromethane 20.24 18.78 19.20 5 2
2-Picoline 20.70 18.95 2500 25
1,2-Dibromoethane 20.70 19.10 19.40 0.5 2
1-Chlorohexane -- -- --
Chlorobenzene 21.64 19.71 20.67 1.5 5
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 21.74 19.74 20.87 0.5 24
Ethylbenzene 21.74 19.71 21.00 0.5 9
n-Nitroso-methyl-ethylamine 21.89 19.70 2500 25
p-Xylene 21.89 19.83 21.30 1.5 1
m-Xylene 21.89 19.83 21.37 1.5 1
Styrene 22.83 20.55 22.40 0.5 11
o-Xylene 22.74 20.49 22.27 0.5 1
Isopropylbenzene (Cumene) 23.32 20.96 23.30 0.5 10
Bromoform 23.43 21.13 22.77 5 8
cis-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 23.48 21.04 20 13
n-Nitrosodiethylamine 23.52 21.05 2500 25
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 23.64 21.23 24.07 1.5 8




8261A - 48 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 1 (cont.)




LOCd
Compound Retention Time (minutes)
Column 1a Column 2b Column 2'c (ng, %)


1,2,3-Trichloropropane 23.86 21.42 24.13 1.5 1
n-Propylbenzene 23.92 21.47 24.33 0.5 14
trans-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 23.98 21.47 20 14
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 24.15 21.67 24.83 0.5 4
Bromobenzene 24.03 15.86 24.00 0.5 21
2-Chlorotoluene 24.20 21.78 24.53 0.5 20
4-Chlorotoluene 24.26 21.83 24.77 0.5 7
Pentachloroethane 24.72 22.30 0.5 18
tert-Butylbenzene 24.61 22.13 26.60 0.5 9
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 24.66 22.18 31.50 0.5 5
sec-Butylbenzene 24.88 22.39 26.13 0.5 13
Aniline 25.08 22.63 100 20
p-Isopropyltoluene 25.03 22.55 26.50 1.5 3
1,3-Dichlorobenzene 25.17 22.80 26.37 5 19
1,4-Dichlorobenzene 25.29 22.92 26.60 0.5 16
Benzyl chloride --
n-Butylbenzene 25.49 23.09 27.32 0.5 21
1,2-Dichlorobenzene 25.71 23.46 27.43 0.5 7
n-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine 26.02 23.64 2500 25
Acetophenone 26.22 24.04 3 23
o-Toluidine 26.32 24.22 300 11
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 26.54 24.56 -- 1.5 1
Hexachlorobutadiene 27.57 26.07 32.07 1.5 11
Nitrobenzene 26.65 24.70 10 23
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 27.45 25.93 31.50 0.5 9
Naphthalene 27.79 26.49 32.20 0.5 17
1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 28.06 26.93 32.97 0.5 25
2-Methylnaphthalene 29.17 28.78 3 10
1-Methylnaphthalene 29.56 29.49 1 9




INTERNAL STANDARDS and SURROGATES
Diethyl ether-d10 9.71 8.83
Acetone-d6 10.18 9.30
Methylene chloride-d2 10.90 10.04
Nitromethane-d3 12.56 11.53
Hexafluorobenzene 12.08 10.98
Tetrahydrofuran-d8 13.45 12.43
TABLE 1 (cont.)



8261A - 49 Revision 1
October 2006
Compound Retention Time (minutes) Lower
Column 1a Column 2b Column 2'c (礸/L)


Ethyl acetate-13C2 12.90 11.77
Pentafluorobenzene 13.21 12.05
Benzene-d6 14.53 13.51
1,2-Dichloroethane-d4 14.44 13.37
Fluorobenzene 14.98 13.89 14.06
1,4-Difluorobenzene 15.07 13.90
1,2-Dichloropropane-d6 15.86 14.74
1,4-Dioxane-d8 16.55 15.29
Toluene-d8 18.10 16.97
Pyridine-d5 18.32 17.05
1,1,2-Trichloroethane-d3 18.92 17.65
1,2-Dibromomethane-d4 20.52 18.97
Chlorobenzene-d5 21.55 19.65
o-Xylene-d10 22.55 20.34
4-Bromofluorobenzene 23.75 21.34 23.63
Bromobenzene-d5 23.97 21.60
1,2-Dichlorobenzene-d4 25.68 23.41 27.25
Decafluorobiphenyl 25.49 22.80
Nitrobenzene-d5 26.60 24.64
Acetophenone-d5 26.17 23.99
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene-d3 27.43 25.88
Naphthalene-d8 27.74 26.41
1-Methylnaphthalene-d10 29.45 29.28



a
Column 1 - 60 meter x 0.53 mm ID 3Fm film thickness VOCOL capillary. Hold at -25EC for
4 minutes, then program to 40EC at 50EC/min. Hold at 40EC for 0 minutes, then program to
120EC at 5EC/min. Hold at 120EC for 0 minutes, then program to 220EC at 22EC/min. Hold
at 220EC for 6.15 minutes.

Column 2 - 60 meter x 0.25 mm ID 1.5 Fm film thickness VOCOL capillary using cryogenic
b

oven. Hold at -20EC for 2.5 minutes, then program to 60EC at 40EC/min. Hold at 60EC for 0
minutes, then program to 120EC at 5EC/min. Hold at 120EC for 0 minutes, then program to
220EC at 20EC/min. Hold at 220EC for 9 minutes.

c
Column 2' - 30 meter x 0.53 mm ID DB-624 wide-bore capillary, cooling GC oven to ambient
temperatures. Hold at 10EC for 6 minutes, program to 70EC at 10 EC/min, program to
120EC at 5EC/min, then program to 180EC at 8EC/min.

d
Lower limit of Calibration as total nanograms. Mass detected using standards in a 5-mL
sample volume and column #2. Full scan acquisition mode was used. The % is the
deviation found for the calibration range LOC to 5X LOC. The study that generated these



8261A - 50 Revision 1
October 2006
data used 25% as a threshold for determining the LOC and should be used for guidance
only.

e
Low end of calibration limited due to presence of compound in background.


TABLE 2

BFB (4-BROMOFLUOROBENZENE) MASS INTENSITY CRITERIAa



m/z Required Intensity (relative abundance)

50 15 to 40% of m/z 95
75 30 to 60% of m/z 95
95 Base peak, 100% relative abundance
96 5 to 9% of m/z 95
173 Less than 2% of m/z 174
174 Greater than 50% of m/z 95
175 5 to 9% of m/z 174
176 Greater than 95% but less than 101% of m/z 174
177 5 to 9% of m/z 176


a
The criteria in this table are intended to be used as default criteria if optimized
manufacturer's operating conditions are not available. Alternate tuning criteria may be
employed, (e.g., CLP or Method 524.2), provided that method performance is not
adversely affected. See Sec. 11.3.1




TABLE 3


8261A - 51 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 3
(continued)

CHARACTERISTIC MASSES (m/z) FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS



Compound Primary Characteristic Secondary Characteristic Ion(s)
Ion

Acetone 58 43
Acetonitrile 40 41, 39
Acetophenone 105 77,120
Acetylaldehyde 44 43,42,41
Acrolein 56 55, 58
Acrylonitrile 53 52, 51
Allyl chloride 76 76, 41, 39, 78
tert-Amylmethyl ether 87 73,55
Aniline 66 93
Benzene 78 -
Bromobenzene 156 158
Bromochloromethane 128 49, 130
Bromodichloromethane 83 85, 127
Bromoform 173 175, 254
Bromomethane 94 96
2-Butanone 72 43, 72
n-Butylbenzene 134 91, 92
tert-Butylalcohol 59 43,57
sec-Butylbenzene 134 105
tert-Butylbenzene 134 91, 119
Carbon disulfide 76 78
Carbon tetrachloride 119 117
Chlorobenzene 112 77, 114
Chlorodibromomethane 129 208, 206
Chloroethane 64 66
2-Chloroethyl vinyl ether 63 65, 106
Chloroform 83 85
Chloromethane 50 52
2-Chlorotoluene 126 91
4-Chlorotoluene 126 91
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 157 75, 155
Dibromomethane 174 93, 95


8261A - 52 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 3
(continued)


Compound Primary Characteristic Secondary Characteristic Ion(s)
Ion

1,2-Dibromomethane 107 109
1,2-Dichlorobenzene 146 111, 148
1,3-Dichlorobenzene 146 111, 148
1,4-Dichlorobenzene 146 111, 148
cis-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 75 75, 53, 77, 124, 89
trans-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 75 53, 88
Dichlorodifluoromethane 85 87
1,1-Dichloroethane 63 65, 83
1,2-Dichloroethane 62 98
1,1-Dichloroethene 96 61, 63
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene 96 61, 98
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene 96 61, 98
1,2-Dichloropropane 63 112
1,3-Dichloropropane 76 78
2,2-Dichloropropane 77 97
1,1-Dichloropropene 75 110, 77
cis-1,3-Dichloropropene 75 77, 39
trans-1,3-Dichloropropene 75 77, 39
Diethyl ether 74 45, 59
Diisopropyl ether 87 45,59
1,4-Dioxane 88 88, 58, 43, 57
Ethanol 45 27,31, 46
Ethyl acetate 88 43, 45, 61
Ethylbenzene 106 91
Ethyl tert-butyl ether 87 59,57
Ethyl methacrylate 69 69, 41, 99, 86, 114
Hexachlorobutadiene 225 223, 227
2-Hexanone 58 100
Iodomethane 142 127, 141
Isobutyl alcohol 74 43, 41, 42
Isopropylbenzene 120 105
p-Isopropyltoluene 134 91, 119
Methacrylonitrile 41 39, 52, 66,67
Methyl-t-butyl ether 73 57
Methylene chloride 84 86, 49

8261A - 53 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 3
(continued)


Compound Primary Characteristic Secondary Characteristic Ion(s)
Ion

Methyl methacrylate 69 69, 41, 100, 39
1-Methylnaphathalene 142 141
2-Methylnaphathalene 142 141
4-Methyl-2-pentanone 100 43, 58, 85
Naphthalene 128 127
Nitrobenzene 77 51, 123
N-Nitrosodibutylamine 84 158
N-Nitrosodiethylamine 102 57
N-Nitrosodimethylamine 74 42
N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine 130 70
N-Nitrosomethylethylamine 88 56, 42
Pentachloroethane 167 167, 130, 132, 165, 169
2-Picoline 93 93, 66, 92, 78
Propionitrile 54 52, 55, 40
n-Propylbenzene 120 91
Pyridine 79 52
Styrene 104 78
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 131 133
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 83 131, 85
Tetrachloroethene 166 129, 131, 164
Toluene 91 92
o-Toluidine 106 107
1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 180 182, 145
1,2,4,-Trichlorobenzene 182 180, 145
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 97 99, 61
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 97 83, 85
Trichloroethene 130 95, 97, 132
Trichlorofluoromethane 101 151, 153
1,2,3-Trichloropropane 110 75, 77
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 120 105
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 120 105
Vinyl chloride 62 64
o-Xylene 106 91
m-Xylene 106 91
p-Xylene 106 91

8261A - 54 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 3
(continued)


Compound Primary Characteristic Secondary Characteristic Ion(s)
Ion

Internal standard and Surrogates
Acetone-13C 59 44
Acetophenone-d5 110 82
Benzene-d6 84 83
Bromobenzene-d5 161 82, 162
4-Bromofluorobenzene 174 95, 176
Chlorobenzene-d5 82 117, 119
Decafluorobiphenyl 265 234
1,2-Dibromomethane-d4 111 113
1,2-Dichlorobenzene-d4 152 115, 150
1,2-Dichloroethane-d4 65 102
1,2-Dichloropropane-d6 67 69
Diethyl ether-d10 84 66, 50
1,4-Difluorobenzene 114 63
1,4-Dioxane-d8 96 64
13
Ethyl acetate- C2 71 62
Fluorobenzene 96 77
Hexafluorobenzene 186 117
Methylene chloride-d2 53 88, 90
Methylnaphthalene-d10 152 150
Naphthalene-d8 136 108
Nitrobenzene-d5 82 128
13
Nitromethane- C 62 46
Pentafluorobenzene 168 99
Pyridine-d5 84 56
Tetrahydrofuran-d8 78 80
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene-d3 183 185
1,1,2-Trichloroethane-d3 100 102,84
Toluene-d8 98 100
o-Xylene-d10 98 116




8261A - 55 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 3
(continued)



The ions listed above are those recommended, but not required, for use in this method. In
general, the ions listed as the primary characteristic ion provide a better response or suffer from
fewer interferences. However, either the primary ion or one of the secondary ions listed here
may be used for quantitation of the analytes, provided that the same ions are used for both
calibrations and sample analyses. In some instances, sample-specific interferences may occur
that complicate the use of the characteristic ion that was used for the calibration. If such
interferences occur, the use of a secondary ion for quantitation must be clearly documented and
supported by multi-point calibration factors derived from the same ion.




8261A - 56 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 4

BOILING POINTS AND RELATIVE VOLATILITY VALUES FOR METHOD 8261 COMPOUNDS

relative volatility
values
b
b.p.
Avg.e SDf
Kd
Compound (EC)
Dichlorodifluoromethane -30 0.07 0.02
Chloromethane -24 1.37 0.07
Vinyl chloride -13 0.48 0.06
Bromomethane 4 1.82 0.12
Chloroethane 12 1.01 0.02
Trichlorofluoromethane 24 0.20 0.02
Diethyl ether 35 34.9 5.7
Acrolein 53 180 116.8 1
Acetone 56 580 600 32.0
1,1-Dichloroethene 37 0.63 0.07
Iodomethane 42 2.29 0.43
Allyl chloride 45 1.34 0.45
Carbon disulfide 46 0.31
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2- 48 0.40
trifluoroethane
Acetonitrile 82 1200 545 103.0
Methylene chloride 40 9.33 10.1 1.6
Acrylonitrile 78 161 32.0
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene 48 2.3 0.46
MTBE 55 33.7
Methyl acetate 57 222
1,1-Dichloroethane 57 4.12 0.08
Methacrylonitrile 90 102.9 2.4
2-Butanone 80 380 770 110
Cyclohexane 81 0.59
Propionitrile 97 1420 320
2,2-Dichloropropane 69 1.37 0.18
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene 60 5.34 0.07
Chloroform 62 5.85 6.39 0.09
Bromochloromethane 68 15.4 0.4
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 74 1.41 1.31 0.04
1,1-Dichloropropene 104 0.88 0.03
Carbon tetrachloride 76 0.64 0.02
1,2-Dichloroethane 84 20.23 18.7 0.9
Benzene 80 4.36 3.55 0.27
Trichloroethene 87 2.34 0.09
1,2-Dichloropropane 96 10.9 0.2
Methyl methacrylate 101 71.4 4.1

8261A - 57 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 4
(continued)

relative volatility
values
b
b.p.
Avg.e SDf
Kd
Compound (EC)
Methyl cyclohexane 101 0.62
Bromodichloromethane 90 12.3 0.6
1,4-Dioxane 101 5750 6200 700
Dibromomethane 97 23.9 1.7
4-Methyl-2-pentanone 117 119.9 8.4
trans-1,3-Dichloropropene 112 14.1 0.7
Toluene 111 3.93 3.88 0.12
Pyridine 116 13100 600
cis-1,3-Dichloropropene 104 19.6 1.4
Ethyl methacrylate 117 48.4 2.8
N-Nitrosodimethylamine 154 129 37.3
2-Hexanone 128 131.1 2.1
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 114 26.2 2.4
Tetrachloroethene 121 1.55 1.43 0.03
Isobutyl alcohol 108 1750 156.0
1,3-Dichloropropane 120 24.9 1.9
Dibromochloromethane 120 19.2 1.4
2-Picoline 129 6800 5200
1,2-Dibromoethane 132 26.7 2.0
Chlorobenzene 132 6.07 0.24
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 130 11.6 0.6
Ethylbenzene 136 3.28 3.6 0.12
N-Nitrosomethylethylamine 165 1900 800
m+p-Xylenes 138 3.91 0.11
Styrene 145 6.87 0.36
o-Xylene 144 5.11 5.54 0.09
Isopropylbenzene 152 2.20 2.75 0.05
Bromoform 150 23.4 2.4
cis-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 152 33.3 8.1
N-Nitrosodiethylamine 177 4900 2200
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 146 30.3 2.8
1,2,3-Trichloropropane 157 33.6 2.9
n-Propylbenzene 159 2.49 2.43 0.04
trans-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 156 33.8 7.4
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 165 3.52 3.75 0.18
Bromobenzene 156 7.89 0.73
2-Chlorotoluene 159 4.04 0.17
4-Chlorotoluene 162 4.78 0.43
Pentachloroethane 162 13.2 3.3

8261A - 58 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 4
(continued)

relative volatility
values
b
b.p.
Avg.e SDf
Kd
Compound (EC)
tert-Butylbenzene 169 2.72 0.05
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 169 4.5 0.4
sec-Butylbenzene 173 1.91 0.04
Aniline 184 13700 2300
p-Isopropyltoluene 183 2.25 2.5 0.07
1,3-Dichlorobenzene 173 5.72 0.73
1,4-Dichlorobenzene 174 6.14 0.84
n-Butylbenzene 183 1.65 1.88 0.08
1,2-Dichlorobenzene 180 7.86 1.19
N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine 206 2400 2000
Acetophenone 203 161
o-Toluidine 200 15200 2100
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 196 38.9 4.9
Hexachlorobutadiene 215 2.08 0.06
Nitrobenzene 211 87.5
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 214 7.73 1.22
Naphthalene 218 16.7 2.2
1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 218 11.3 1.6
N-Nitrosodibutylamine 240 21000 5000
2-Methylnaphthalene 245 67 17
1-Methylnaphthalene 245 67 17



Internal Standard and
Surrogates
Diethylether-d10 35 32.5
Acetone-d6 57 600 600
Methylene chloride-d2 40 11.1 1.9
Nitromethane-13C 101 510
Hexafluorobenzene 82 0.86 0.06
Tetrahydrofuran-d8 66 456 67.0
Ethyl acetate-13C2 77 150 150
Pentafluorobenzene 85 1.51 0.04
Benzene-d6 79 4.4 3.92 0.27
1,2-Dichloroethane-d4 84 20.0 20.0
Fluorobenzene 85 3.5 0.21
1,4-Difluorobenzene 88 3.83 0.07
1,2-Dichloropropane-d6 95 11 0.1
1,4-Dioxane-d8 101 5800 5800

8261A - 59 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 4
(continued)

relative volatility
values
b
b.p.
Avg.e SDf
Kd
Compound (EC)
Toluene-d8 111 4.28 0.09
Pyridine-d5 115 15000 15000
1,1,2-Trichloroethane-d3 112 26.6 0.7
1,2-Dibromoethane-d4 131 26.0 1.7
Chlorobenzene-d5 131 6.27 0.17
o-Xylene-d10 143 5.1 6.14 0.2
4-Bromo-1-fluorobenzene 152 8.05 0.7
Bromobenzene-d5 155 7.93 0.59
1,2-Dichlorobenzene-d4 181 8.03 1.23
Decafluorobiphenyl 206 3.03 0.06
Acetophenone-d5 202 161 20.0
Nitrobenzene-d5 210 87.5
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene-d3 213 7.88 1.19
Naphthalene-d8 217 18 3.7
1-Methylnaphthalene-d10 241 67


b
Boiling point of analyte

Partition coefficient of analyte between headspace and water at 20 EC. Used to experimentally
d

interpolate relative volatility values.

e
Average of 3 to 4 replicates

f
One standard deviation




8261A - 60 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 5

RELATIVE VOLATILITY RANGES OF THE RELATIVE VOLATILITY INTERNAL STANDARDS



Relative Volatility Range Internal standard Groups
Group 1 Hexafluorobenzene
0.07 to 3.83 Fluorobenzene
1,4-Difluorobenzene


Group 2 1,4-Difluorobenzene
3.83 to 6.27 o-Xylene-d10
Chlorobenzene-d5


Group 3 o-Xylene-d10
6.27 to 29.2 Chlorobenzene-d5
1,2-Dibromoethane-d4
Diethylether-d10


Group 4 1,2-Dibromoethane-d4
29.2 to 477.5 Diethylether-d10
Tetrahydrofuran-d8
Acetone-C13


Group 5 Tetrahydrofuran-d8
Acetone-C13
477.5 to 5800
1,4-Dioxane-d8


Acetone-C13
Group 6
5800 to 15000 1,4-Dioxane-d8
Pyridine-d5




8261A - 61 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 6

INTERNAL STANDARDS AND SURROGATES



FUNCTIONa
Internal Standard CAS Amount Spike
Registry No.a Addedb Solution
(ng) (Fg/mL)
Diethylether-d10 2679-89-2 rel vol. IS 250 50
13
Acetone-C 666-52-4 rel vol. IS 3100 620
Methylenechloride-d2 1665-00-5 surrogate-for 250 50
volatile
compounds
Nitromethane-C13 surrogate for 650 130
non-purging
compounds
Hexafluorobenzene 392-56-3 first pass, rel 250 50
vol. IS
Tetrahydrofuran-d8 1693-74-9 rel vol. IS 250 50
Ethylacetate-C13 84508-45-2 surrogate for 2500 500
non-purging
compounds
Pentafluorobenzene 363-72-4 boiling point 250 50
IS
Benzene-d6 1076-43-3 surrogate-for 250 50
volatile
compounds
1,2-Dichloroethane-d6 17060-07-0 first pass, rel 250 50
vol. IS
Fluorobenzene 462-06-6 first pass, rel 250 50
vol. IS
1,4-Difluorobenzene 540-36-3 rel vol. IS 250 50
1,2-Dichloropropane-d6 surrogate-for 250 50
volatile
compounds
1,4-Dioxane-d8 17647-74-4 rel vol. IS 2400 480
Toluene-d8 2037-26-5 boiling point 250 50
IS
Pyridine-d5 7291-22-7 rel vol. IS, 12500 2500
surrogate for
non-purging
compounds



8261A - 62 Revision 1
October 2006
1,1,2-Trichloropropane-d3 surrogate-for 250 50
volatile
compounds
1,2-Dibromoethane-d4 22581-63-1 rel vol. IS 250 50
Chlorobenzene-d5 3114-55-4 rel vol. IS 250 50
o-Xylene-d10 56004-61-6 rel vol. IS 250 50
4-Bromofluorobenzene 460-00-4 surrogate-for 250 50
volatile
compounds
Bromobenzene-d5 4165-57-5 boiling point 250 50
IS
1,2-Dichlorobenzene-d4 2199-69-1 boiling point 250 50
IS
Decafluorobiphenyl 434-90-2 surrogate for 250 50
semivolatile
compounds
Nitrobenzene-d5 4165-60-0 surrogate for 250 50
semivolatile
compounds
Acetophenone-d5 28077-31-4 surrogate for 1050 210
semivolatile
compounds
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene-d3 boiling point 250 50
IS
Naphthalene-d8 1146-65-2 boiling point 500 100
IS, surrogate
for
semivolatile
compounds
1-Methylnaphthalene-d10 38072-94-5 boiling point 1050 210
IS

a
The purpose for each compound in table: 1) relative volatility correction (rel. vol.), boiling point
correction, or surrogates (volatile, non-purgeable, and semi-volatile compounds). Note that
some compounds fill a dual purpose. Should additional suitable labeled compounds be found
they can be added to this list.

The total amount of compounds added (in 5 FL vulume) to each standard or sample,
b

regardless of matrix or sample size. These amounts can be reduced for more sensitive
instruments.




8261A - 63 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 7

ADVISORY RECOVERY RANGES FOR SURROGATES


SURROGATE COMPOUND water limits soil limits oil limits
lower upper lower upper lower upper
Volatile fraction
Methylenechloride-d2 75 125 75 125 75 125
Benzene-d6 75 125 75 125 75 125
1,2-Dichloropropane-d6 75 125 75 125 75 125
1 1
1,1,2-Trichloropropane-d3 65 135 50 150 75 125
4-Bromofluorobenzene 75 125 75 125 75 125
non-Purgeable fraction
13
Nitromethane-C 65 135 65 135 75 125
13
Ethylacetate-C 65 135 65 135 75 125
1752 1752
Pyridine-d5 35 35 75 125
Semivolatile fraction
Decafluorobiphenyl 50 175 35 175 50 150
Nitrobenzene-d5 35 150 25 175 50 135
Acetophenone-d5 35 150 25 175 50 135
Naphthalene-d8 75 125 65 150 75 125

1
Spectral interference common for this compound.
2
Compound susceptable to chromatographic degradation. If compound outside windows all
compounds in its relative volatility group (compounds with relative volatility > 5800) should be
considered qualitative.




8261A - 64 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 8

BOILING POINT RANGES OF THE BOILING POINT INTERNAL STANDARDS


Boiling Point Range (EC) Internal Standard Groups
Group 1 Pentafluorobenzene
85 to 155 Toluene-d8
Bromobenzene-d5


Group 2 Bromobenzene-d5
155 to 213 1,2-Dichlorobenzene-d4
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene-d3


Group 3 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene-d3
213 to 241 Naphthalene-d8
1-Methylnaphthalene-d10

The boiling point effects relating to an analyte with a boiling point of # 85EC are assumed to
a

be negligible.




8261A - 65 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 9

RECOMMENDED MINIMUM RESPONSE FACTOR CRITERIA FOR INITIAL AND
CONTINUING CALIBRATION VERIFICATION



Volatile Compounds Minimum Response
Factor (RF)1
Dichlorodifluoromethane 200
Chloromethane 200
Vinyl chloride 200
Acetylaldehyde 50
Bromomethane 200
Chloroethane 200
Trichlorofluoromethane 200
Diethyl ether 400
Acetone 500
1,1-Dichloroethene 500
t-Butylalcohol 100
Iodomethane 200
Allyl chloride 200
Acetonitrile 200
Methylene chloride 1000
MTBE 1000
Methyl acetate 1000
Acrylonitrile 500
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene 500
di-Isopropyl ether 500
1,1-Dichloroethane 1000
Ethyl t-butyl ether 500
Methacrylonitrile 500
2-Butanone 100
Propionitrile 100
2,2-Dichloropropane 1000
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene 500
Chloroform 1000
Bromochloromethane 200
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 1000
1,1-Dichloropropene 200
t-Amylmethyl ether 100
Carbon disulfide 1000


8261A - 66 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 9
(continued)


Volatile Compounds Minimum Response
Factor (RF)1
Carbon tetrachloride 1000
1,2-Dichloroethane 1000
Benzene 1000
Cyclohexane 1000
Methyl cyclohexane 1000
Trichloroethene 500
1,2-Dichloropropane 500
Methyl methacrylate 500
Bromodichloromethane 500
1,4-Dioxane 50
Dibromomethane 500
4-Methyl-2-pentanone 50
trans-1,3-Dichloropropene 500
Toluene 1000
Pyridine 50
cis-1,3-Dichloropropene 500
ethylmethacrylate 50
N-Nitrosodimethylamine 5
2-Hexanone 100
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 500
Tetrachloroethene 500
1,3-Dichloropropane 500
Dibromochloromethane 500
2-Picoline 5
1,2-Dibromoethane 200
Chlorobenzene 1000
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 500
Ethylbenzene 1000
N-Nitrosomethylethylamine 5
m+p-Xylenes 1000
Styrene 1000
o-Xylene 1000
Isopropylbenzene 1000
Bromoform 200
cis-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 20
N-Nitrosodiethylamine 5
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 500


8261A - 67 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 9
(continued)


Volatile Compounds Minimum Response
Factor (RF)1
1,2,3-Trichloropropane 200
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane 1000
n-Propylbenzene 1000
trans-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 20
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 1000
Bromobenzene 1000
2-Chlorotoluene 1000
4-Chlorotoluene 1000
Pentachloroethane 200
tert-Butylbenzene 500
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 1000
sec-Butylbenzene 1000
Aniline 10
p-Isopropyltoluene 1000
1,3-Dichlorobenzene 1000
1,4-Dichlorobenzene 1000
n-Butylbenzene 1000
1,2-Dichlorobenzene 1000
N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine 5
Acetophenone 100
o-Toluidine 5
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloro propane 100
Hexachlorobutadiene 500
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 500
Naphthalene 1000
Nitrobenzene 100
1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 200
2-Methylnaphthalene 100
1-Methylnaphthalene 100
Internal Standards and Surrogates
Diethylether-d10 400
13
Acetone-C 200
Methylenechloride-d2 200
13
Nitromethane-C 100
Hexafluorobenzene 1000
Tetrahydrofuran-d8 100

8261A - 68 Revision 1
October 2006
Volatile Compounds Minimum Response
Factor (RF)1
Ethylacetate-C13 50
Pentafluorobenzene 1000
Benzene-d6 1000
1,2-Dichloroethane-d6 500
Fluorobenzene 1000
1,4-Difluorobenzene 1000
1,2-Dichloropropane-d6 500
1,4-Dioxane-d8 50
Toluene-d8 1000
Pyridine-d5 50
1,1,2-Trichloropropane-d3 500
1,2-Dibromoethane-d4 50
Chlorobenzene-d5 1000
o-Xylene-d10 1000
4-Bromofluorobenzene 500
Bromobenzene-d5 500
1,2-Dichlorobenzene-d4 500
Decafluorobiphenyl 100
Nitrobenzene-d5 50
Acetophenone-d5 50
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene-d3 500
Naphthalene-d8 1000
1-Methylnaphthalene-d10 100
1
The response factor is determined in units of response (integrated area) per nanogram.




TABLE 10

EXAMPLE DATA FOR RECOVERY OF ANALYTES SPIKED INTO THREE SOILS



8261A - 69 Revision 1
October 2006
AND ANALYZED BY VACUUM DISTILLATION GC/MS USING A WIDE-BORE COLUMN
CAPILLARY COLUMN


Soil #1a Soil #2b Soil #3c
% Rel Sur % Rel Sur % Rel Sur
Recd Errore Pref Recd Errore Pref Recd Errore Pref
Compound
Dichlorodifluoromethane 128 28 0 122 30 92 22 4 4
Chloromethane 116 9 0 109 13 74 71 6 12
Vinyl chloride 114 14 0 118 18 87 94 7 15
Bromomethane 106 12 0 101 12 62 24 1 2
Chloroethane 109 11 0 110 11 75 15 0 2
Trichlorofluoromethane 111 11 0 125 14 98 12 0 2
Diethyl ether 20 8 1 18 8 6 10 1 1
Acetone 112 3 6 102 4 75 139 21 60
1,1-Dichloroethene 110 4 0 120 17 91 68 7 10
Iodomethane 106 6 0 96 15 56 94 3 6
Allyl chloride 116 8 0 111 12 77 88 4 10
Methylene chloride-d6 105 6 2 96 6 60 101 3 2
Methylene chloride 104 5 2 94 4 57 94 4 2
Acrylonitrile 106 5 7 93 4 60 135 9 62
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene 99 8 0 93 9 53 85 5 6
1,1-Dichloroethane 109 5 1 103 2 66 179 0 0
Methacrylonitrile 106 3 6 69 7 35 152 2 11
2-Butanone 112 11 6 102 4 77 152 9 64
Propionitrile 122 4 6 109 2 83 167 6 64
2,2-Dichloropropane 105 1 0 115 7 83 89 1 10
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene 101 2 2 97 0 59 101 1 2
Chloroform 99 2 3 98 2 62 103 0 2
Isobutyl alcohol 103 9 6 105 6 75 NA NA NA
Bromochloromethane 98 0 2 93 2 59 105 1 2
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 99 1 0 112 6 78 85 1 10
1,1-Dichloropropene 102 2 2 120 7 87 83 1 12
Carbon tetrachloride 93 3 0 112 8 78 83 1 12
Benzene-d6 102 1 1 99 1 60 102 1 1
1,2-Dichloroethane 99 1 2 94 0 108 108 1 3
Benzene 101 1 1 98 1 101 101 1 1
Trichloroethene 90 2 1 94 1 95 95 2 6
1,2-Dichloropropane-d6 102 1 2 101 1 103 103 1 2
1,2-Dichloropropane 102 2 3 101 1 102 102 1 2




8261A - 70 Revision 1
October 2006
Table 10
(continued)




Soil #1a Soil #2b Soil #3c
% Rel Sur % Rel Sur % Rel Sur
Recd Errore Pref Recd Errore Pref Recd Errore Pref
Compound
Methyl methacrylate 152 2 9 149 11 145 145 4 13
Bromodichloromethane 94 2 2 95 1 103 103 1 2
1,4-Dioxane 110 1 5 103 1 123 123 2 29
Dibromomethane 93 2 5 93 1 105 105 1 9
4-Methyl-2-pentanone 125 2 8 112 6 147 147 4 13
trans-1,3-Dichloropropene 99 1 3 99 0 101 101 1 2
Toluene 99 0 3 99 1 96 96 1 1
Pyridine 95 5 8 119 1 71 71 3 43
cis-1,3-Dichloropropene 91 2 2 93 1 102 102 1 3
N-Nitrosodimethylamine 68 5 4 54 11 20 20 1 2
1,1,2-Trichloroethane-d3 95 3 5 100 4 102 102 1 8
2-Hexanone 125 6 6 110 4 145 145 8 13
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 93 2 5 96 2 103 103 1 9
Tetrachloroethene 98 7 2 105 2 123 123 8 14
1,3-Dichloropropane 99 1 6 101 1 103 103 1 9
Dibromochloromethane 92 2 3 95 0 103 103 1 3
2-Picoline 71 5 3 66 20 62 62 8 15
1,2-Dibromoethane 104 1 5 108 1 108 109 0 9
Chlorobenzene 96 1 4 97 1 109 104 1 2
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 96 1 3 97 1 98 98 1 2
Ethylbenzene 102 0 2 99 1 52 96 1 1
N-Nitrosomethylethylamine 84 6 4 92 13 46 29 1 10
m+p-Xylenes 101 1 2 99 1 52 94 1 1
Styrene 97 1 3 96 1 49 96 0 3
o-Xylene 102 1 2 100 1 53 97 1 2
Isopropylbenzene 101 2 1 98 1 49 87 1 4
Bromoform 94 0 5 103 2 64 101 1 8
cis-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 106 5 6 115 1 79 116 1 9
N-Nitrosodiethylamine 104 13 4 128 16 84 45 1 11
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 93 2 5 100 1 61 101 2 8
4-Bromo-1-fluorobenzene 94 2 3 93 1 45 99 0 2
1,2,3-Trichloropropane 111 6 6 120 1 86 115 1 9
n-Propylbenzene 100 3 1 95 0 45 85 1 5
trans-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 103 4 5 114 3 76 119 1 10
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 103 1 1 93 2 42 91 1 2

8261A - 71 Revision 1
October 2006
Soil #1a Soil #2b Soil #3c
% Rel Sur % Rel Sur % Rel Sur
Recd Errore Pref Recd Errore Pref Recd Errore Pref
Compound
Bromobenzene 97 1 3 98 0 50 102 0 2
2-Chlorotoluene 98 1 1 90 2 41 94 1 1
4-Chlorotoluene 98 3 2 93 1 43 95 1 2
Pentachloroethane 88 2 2 86 3 39 72 4 2
tert-Butylbenzene 103 2 2 99 1 47 83 1 4
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 104 1 2 96 2 44 91 1 2
sec-Butylbenzene 99 4 2 93 3 43 83 1 8
Aniline 106 16 10 143 29 106 15 1 10
p-Isopropyltoluene 104 2 3 101 3 48 87 2 7
1,3-Dichlorobenzene 94 3 3 88 1 38 100 1 4
1,4-Dichlorobenzene 94 2 4 90 1 41 100 1 4
n-Butylbenzene 97 5 3 89 4 38 83 1 8
1,2-Dichlorobenzene 95 2 4 93 0 42 103 1 5
Benzyl alcohol 98 6 8 128 30 82 22 1 9
N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine 120 16 9 185 27 168 108 3 38
Acetophenone-d5 104 10 9 167 11 136 270 7 124
o-Toluidine 118 21 12 172 45 149 19 1 14
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloro 104 7 8 143 10 106 185 3 24
propane
Hexachlorobutadiene 88 3 14 81 12 58 75 2 8
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 88 2 13 81 1 38 104 1 8
Naphthalene-d8 88 5 17 109 5 69 141 2 12
Naphthalene 88 4 18 109 2 70 132 2 12
1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 83 0 18 77 2 40 111 1 10
N-Nitrosodibutylamine 133 30 44 152 51 149 11 1 11
2-Methylnaphthalene 60 5 20 60 0 36 62 3 29

a
Garden soil with 37% moisture and 21% organic matter. Three replicates were analyzed.
b
Garden soil with 15% moisture and 16% organic matter. Three replicates were analyzed.
c
Desert soil with 3% moisture and 1% organic matter. Seven replicates were analyzed.
d
% Rec = Average of replicate accuracy results using internal standard corrections.
e
Rel Error = Relative standard deviation of replicate analyses.
f
Sur Pre = Average variation between the predicted analyte recoveries of the internal
standard pairs for the replicate analyses. This precision value provides a measure of the inherent
error in the overall measurement.
alyte not significantly present in vacuum distillate.
NA
TABLE 11

EXAMPLE DATA FOR RECOVERY OF ANALYTES SPIKED INTO THREE SOILS
AND ANALYZED BY VACUUM DISTILLATION GC/MS USING A NARROW-BORE COLUMN
CAPILLARY COLUMN (NOTE: THIS IS A PLACE HOLDER FOR DATA TO BE ENTERED)



8261A - 72 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 11
(continued)




Soil #1a Soil #2b Soil #3c
% Rel Sur % Rel Sur % Rel Sur
Recd Errore Pref Recd Errore Pref Recd Errore Pref
Compound
Dichlorodifluoromethane 128 28 0 122 30 92 22 4 4
Chloromethane 116 9 0 109 13 74 71 6 12
Vinyl chloride 114 14 0 118 18 87 94 7 15
Bromomethane 106 12 0 101 12 62 24 1 2
Chloroethane 109 11 0 110 11 75 15 0 2
Trichlorofluoromethane 111 11 0 125 14 98 12 0 2
Diethyl ether 20 8 1 18 8 6 10 1 1
Acetone 112 3 6 102 4 75 139 21 60
1,1-Dichloroethene 110 4 0 120 17 91 68 7 10
Iodomethane 106 6 0 96 15 56 94 3 6
Allyl chloride 116 8 0 111 12 77 88 4 10
Methylene chloride-d6 105 6 2 96 6 60 101 3 2
Methylene chloride 104 5 2 94 4 57 94 4 2
Acrylonitrile 106 5 7 93 4 60 135 9 62
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene 99 8 0 93 9 53 85 5 6
1,1-Dichloroethane 109 5 1 103 2 66 179 0 0
Methacrylonitrile 106 3 6 69 7 35 152 2 11
2-Butanone 112 11 6 102 4 77 152 9 64
Propionitrile 122 4 6 109 2 83 167 6 64
2,2-Dichloropropane 105 1 0 115 7 83 89 1 10
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene 101 2 2 97 0 59 101 1 2
Chloroform 99 2 3 98 2 62 103 0 2
Isobutyl alcohol 103 9 6 105 6 75 NA NA NA
Bromochloromethane 98 0 2 93 2 59 105 1 2
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 99 1 0 112 6 78 85 1 10
1,1-Dichloropropene 102 2 2 120 7 87 83 1 12
Carbon tetrachloride 93 3 0 112 8 78 83 1 12
Benzene-d6 102 1 1 99 1 60 102 1 1
1,2-Dichloroethane 99 1 2 94 0 108 108 1 3
Benzene 101 1 1 98 1 101 101 1 1
Trichloroethene 90 2 1 94 1 95 95 2 6
1,2-Dichloropropane-d6 102 1 2 101 1 103 103 1 2
1,2-Dichloropropane 102 2 3 101 1 102 102 1 2
Methyl methacrylate 152 2 9 149 11 145 145 4 13
Bromodichloromethane 94 2 2 95 1 103 103 1 2
1,4-Dioxane 110 1 5 103 1 123 123 2 29
Dibromomethane 93 2 5 93 1 105 105 1 9
4-Methyl-2-pentanone 125 2 8 112 6 147 147 4 13
trans-1,3-Dichloropropene 99 1 3 99 0 101 101 1 2


8261A - 73 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 11
(continued)



Soil #1a Soil #2b Soil #3c
% Rel Sur % Rel Sur % Rel Sur
Recd Errore Pref Recd Errore Pref Recd Errore Pref
Compound
Toluene 99 0 3 99 1 96 96 1 1
Pyridine 95 5 8 119 1 71 71 3 43
cis-1,3-Dichloropropene 91 2 2 93 1 102 102 1 3
N-Nitrosodimethylamine 68 5 4 54 11 20 20 1 2
1,1,2-Trichloroethane-d3 95 3 5 100 4 102 102 1 8
2-Hexanone 125 6 6 110 4 145 145 8 13
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 93 2 5 96 2 103 103 1 9
Tetrachloroethene 98 7 2 105 2 123 123 8 14
1,3-Dichloropropane 99 1 6 101 1 103 103 1 9
Dibromochloromethane 92 2 3 95 0 103 103 1 3
2-Picoline 71 5 3 66 20 62 62 8 15
1,2-Dibromoethane 104 1 5 108 1 108 109 0 9
Chlorobenzene 96 1 4 97 1 109 104 1 2
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 96 1 3 97 1 98 98 1 2
Ethylbenzene 102 0 2 99 1 52 96 1 1
N-Nitrosomethylethylamine 84 6 4 92 13 46 29 1 10
m+p-Xylenes 101 1 2 99 1 52 94 1 1
Styrene 97 1 3 96 1 49 96 0 3
o-Xylene 102 1 2 100 1 53 97 1 2
Isopropylbenzene 101 2 1 98 1 49 87 1 4
Bromoform 94 0 5 103 2 64 101 1 8
cis-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 106 5 6 115 1 79 116 1 9
N-Nitrosodiethylamine 104 13 4 128 16 84 45 1 11
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 93 2 5 100 1 61 101 2 8
4-Bromo-1-fluorobenzene 94 2 3 93 1 45 99 0 2
1,2,3-Trichloropropane 111 6 6 120 1 86 115 1 9
n-Propylbenzene 100 3 1 95 0 45 85 1 5
trans-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 103 4 5 114 3 76 119 1 10
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 103 1 1 93 2 42 91 1 2
Bromobenzene 97 1 3 98 0 50 102 0 2
2-Chlorotoluene 98 1 1 90 2 41 94 1 1
4-Chlorotoluene 98 3 2 93 1 43 95 1 2
Pentachloroethane 88 2 2 86 3 39 72 4 2
tert-Butylbenzene 103 2 2 99 1 47 83 1 4
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 104 1 2 96 2 44 91 1 2
sec-Butylbenzene 99 4 2 93 3 43 83 1 8
Aniline 106 16 10 143 29 106 15 1 10
p-Isopropyltoluene 104 2 3 101 3 48 87 2 7
1,3-Dichlorobenzene 94 3 3 88 1 38 100 1 4
1,4-Dichlorobenzene 94 2 4 90 1 41 100 1 4


8261A - 74 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 11
(continued)



Soil #1a Soil #2b Soil #3c
% Rel Sur % Rel Sur % Rel Sur
Recd Errore Pref Recd Errore Pref Recd Errore Pref
Compound
n-Butylbenzene 97 5 3 89 4 38 83 1 8
1,2-Dichlorobenzene 95 2 4 93 0 42 103 1 5
Benzyl alcohol 98 6 8 128 30 82 22 1 9
N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine 120 16 9 185 27 168 108 3 38
Acetophenone-d5 104 10 9 167 11 136 270 7 124
o-Toluidine 118 21 12 172 45 149 19 1 14
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloro 104 7 8 143 10 106 185 3 24
propane
Hexachlorobutadiene 88 3 14 81 12 58 75 2 8
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 88 2 13 81 1 38 104 1 8
Naphthalene-d8 88 5 17 109 5 69 141 2 12
Naphthalene 88 4 18 109 2 70 132 2 12
1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 83 0 18 77 2 40 111 1 10
N-Nitrosodibutylamine 133 30 44 152 51 149 11 1 11
2-Methylnaphthalene 60 5 20 60 0 36 62 3 29

a
Garden soil with 37% moisture and 21% organic matter. Three replicates were analyzed.
b
Garden soil with 15% moisture and 16% organic matter. Three replicates were analyzed.
c
Desert soil with 3% moisture and 1% organic matter. Seven replicates were analyzed.
d
% Rec = Average of replicate accuracy results using internal standard corrections.
e
Rel Error = Relative standard deviation of replicate analyses.
f
Sur Pre = Average variation between the predicted analyte recoveries of the internal
standard pairs for the replicate analyses. This precision value provides a
measure of the inherent error in the overall measurement.
NA = Analyte not significantly present in vacuum distillate.




8261A - 75 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 12

EXAMPLE DATA FOR RECOVERY OF ANALYTES SPIKED INTO OIL
AND ANALYZED BY VACUUM DISTILLATION GC/MS USING A WIDE-BORE COLUMN
CAPILLARY COLUMN



Internal Standard
% Reca Relative Errorb Precisionc
Compound
Dichlorodifluoromethane 3 0 0
Chloromethane 141 18 2
Vinyl chloride 137 11 2
Bromomethane 120 29 0
Chloroethane 128 44 2
Trichlorofluoromethane 313 176 0
Diethyl ether 103 5 3
Acetone-d6 70 8 12
Acrolein 526 166 28
Acetone 323 125 42
1,1-Dichloroethene 116 4 1
Iodomethane 105 6 1
Allyl chloride 119 16 1
Acetonitrile 24 4 4
Methylene chloride-d6 104 7 2
Methylene chloride 106 10 2
Acrylonitrile 88 7 14
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene 116 4 0
1,1-Dichloroethane 103 2 1
Methacrylonitrile 94 4 4
2-Butanone 92 9 13
Propionitrile 85 4 13
Ethyl acetate-13C2 84 5 3
2,2-Dichloropropane 97 2 1
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene 105 2 1
Chloroform 97 2 2
Isobutyl alcohol 115 11 20
Bromochloromethane 98 3 2

8261A - 76 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 12
(continued)



Internal Standard
% Reca Relative Errorb Precisionc
Compound
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 97 3 1
1,1-Dichloropropene 120 4 3
Carbon tetrachloride 93 2 1
Benzene-d6 100 2 1
1,2-Dichloroethane 101 3 3
Benzene 238 40 0
Trichloroethene 92 3 1
1,2-Dichloropropane-d6 71 13 2
1,2-Dichloropropane 128 7 3
Methyl methacrylate 101 3 4
Bromodichloromethane 92 1 2
1,4-Dioxane 88 13 14
Dibromomethane 95 4 4
4-Methyl-2-pentanone 95 5 4
trans-1,3-Dichloropropene 103 2 4
Toluene 164 16 5
Pyridine 58 42 19
cis-1,3-Dichloropropene 94 1 4
Ethyl methacrylate 109 2 5
N-Nitrosodimethylamine 189 50 7
1,1,2-Trichloroethane-d3 88 2 4
2-Hexanone 106 6 3
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 89 2 4
Tetrachloroethene 68 1 1
1,3-Dichloropropane 99 3 4
Dibromochloromethane 85 1 3
2-Picoline 33 24 8
1,2-Dibromoethane 106 2 3
Chlorobenzene 101 1 2
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 83 2 1

8261A - 77 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 12
(continued)



Internal Standard
% Reca Relative Errorb Precisionc
Compound
Ethylbenzene 114 3 1
N-Nitrosomethylethylamine 192 48 0
m+p-Xylenes 122 3 1
Styrene 102 1 2
o-Xylene 115 3 1
Isopropylbenzene 109 5 1
Bromoform 88 2 3
cis-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 103 3 4
N-Nitrosodiethylamine 222 44 30
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 83 5 3
4-Bromo-1-fluorobenzene 93 2 2
1,2,3-Trichloropropane 103 4 4
n-Propylbenzene 122 4 1
trans-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 95 3 4
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 93 9 2
Bromobenzene 98 2 2
2-Chlorotoluene 78 2 1
4-Chlorotoluene 93 2 2
Pentachloroethane 81 4 2
tert-Butylbenzene 120 55 3
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 127 8 3
sec-Butylbenzene 89 10 3
NAd
Aniline NA NA
p-Isopropyltoluene NA NA NA
1,3-Dichlorobenzene 70 2 2
1,4-Dichlorobenzene 87 3 4
n-Butylbenzene 105 4 6
1,2-Dichlorobenzene 119 14 7
Benzyl alcohol NA NA NA
n-Nitroso-di-n-propylamine 270 58 51

8261A - 78 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 12
(continued)



Internal Standard
% Reca Relative Errorb Precisionc
Compound
Acetophenone-d5 175 31 34
o-Toluidine 108 69 36
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 84 14 6
Hexachlorobutadiene 119 6 20
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 94 5 14
Naphthalene-d8 132 16 29
Naphthalene 123 15 32
1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 80 3 21
n-Nitrosodibutylamine 2000 3600 3200
2-Methylnaphthalene 667 1644 4900

a
Average of seven replicate analyses of 1 g of cod liver oil.

b
Relative standard deviation of replicate analyses.

c
Average variation between the predicted analyte recoveries of the internal standard pairs
for the replicate analyses. This precision value provides a measure of the inherent error in
the overall measurement.

d
NA = Compound could not be accurately measured due to spectral interferences.




8261A - 79 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 13
EXAMPLE RECOVERY OF ANALYTES SPIKED INTO WATER SOLUTIONS AND ANALYZED BY VACUUM DISTILLATION
GC/MS USING A WIDE-BORE CAPILLARY COLUMN


Watera Water/Glycerinb Water/Saltc Water/Soapd
% Rel IS % Rel IS % Rel IS % Rel Surr
Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg
Compound

Dichlorodifluoromethane 76 9 1 84 8 1 85 6 1 56 7 1
Chloromethane 81 6 1 86 8 1 83 10 1 77 3 1
Vinyl chloride 78 5 1 81 3 1 74 4 1 81 4 1
Bromomethane 101 5 1 103 2 0 116 47 1 102 4 1
Chloroethane 95 5 1 96 2 1 112 52 1 95 5 1
Trichlorofluoromethane 122 52 1 98 1 1 120 58 1 96 3 1
Diethyl ether 106 17 2 98 12 1 14 8 0 17 14 1
Acrolein 111 16 3 114 5 1 20 10 2 49 6 2
Acetone 114 17 5 286 41 16 88 5 20 71 10 3
1,1-Dichloroethene 102 10 1 98 6 1 20 12 0 93 9 1
Iodomethane 103 7 1 104 7 0 98 4 1 103 2 0
Allyl chloride 102 10 1 101 6 1 95 4 1 101 3 1
Acetonitrile 122 21 6 189 2 7 82 11 17 99 8 4
Methylene chloride-d2 103 7 1 104 9 0 99 7 1 102 6 2
Methylene chloride 99 9 1 101 10 0 95 10 1 98 8 2
Acrylonitrile 97 1 7 95 3 7 112 21 27 93 3 4
trans-1,2-Dichloroethane 100 4 1 100 5 0 94 8 1 93 6 1
1,1-Dichloroethane 102 5 1 102 5 0 101 4 0 101 1 1
Methacrylonitrile 101 3 2 101 1 1 108 7 7. 104 2 4
2-Butanone 68 43 7 106 31 10 105 27 25 97 2 4
Propionitrile 100 6 6 109 9 14 111 31 22 103 3 4
2,2-Dichloropropane 100 1 1 99 1 1 100 1 1 102 1 1


8261 - 80 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 13
(continued)




Watera Water/Glycerinb Water/Saltc Water/Soapd
% Rel IS % Rel IS % Rel IS % Rel Surr
Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg
Compound

cis-1,2-Dichloroethene 100 1 1 100 1 0 97 2 0 103 0 1
Chloroform 100 1 1 100 2 1 100 2 0 103 1 2
Isobutyl alcohol 86 7 5 137 17 5 116 21 30 76 10 3
Bromochloromethane 102 1 1 102 1 0 100 0 1 102 1 1
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 100 1 1 99 1 1 98 3 1 99 1 1
1,1-Dichloropropene 95 3 1 96 3 1 94 3 1 99 3 1
Carbon tetrachloride 100 0 1 100 2 1 100 2 1 88 2 1
Benzene-d6 99 1 1 99 1 1 99 1 0 100 1 1
1,2-Dichloroethane 101 1 1 101 1 1 99 1 1 100 1 2
Benzene 99 0 1 100 1 1 99 2 0 99 1 1
Trichloroethene 100 1 1 99 1 0 98 1 1 109 1 0
1,2-Dichloropropane-d6 99 2 1 99 2 0 99 2 1 101 2 2
1,2-Dichloropropane 100 1 1 100 1 0 99 1 1 101 1 2
Methyl methacrylate 106 7 2 128 10 1 114 4 5 106 2 5
Bromodichloromethane 102 1 1 100 1 0 102 2 1 101 1 2
1,4-Dioxane 101 8 8 156 15 83 96 18 16 102 3 14
Dibromomethane 102 1 2 101 1 1 99 1 3 100 1 5
4-Methyl-2-pentanone 102 5 3 102 3 1 116 1 9 110 2 5
trans-1,3-Dichloropropene 99 1 1 100 0 1 99 2 1 103 1 1
Toluene 98 2 1 99 1 1 97 3 1 97 1 1
Pyridine 61 20 16 NA NA NA 104 24 37 128 7 36


8261 - 81 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 13
(continued)




Watera Water/Glycerinb Water/Saltc Water/Soapd
% Rel IS % Rel IS % Rel IS % Rel Surr
Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg
Compound

cis-1,3-Dichloropropene 99 1 1 99 1 1 97 2 1 100 1 2
Ethyl methacrylate 109 9 2 156 17 1 109 25 3 105 2 4
N-Nitrosodimethylamine 75 8 2 97 8 1 105 32 10 69 9 4
1,1,2-Trichloroethane-d3 100 1 2 100 2 1 101 2 3 99 1 5
2-Hexanone 102 9 3 99 4 1 118 4 11 112 3 5
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 100 2 2 100 1 1 101 1 2 101 1 5
Tetrachloroethene 98 11 1 98 14 1 106 34 1 200 36 0
1,3-Dichloropropane 98 1 2 99 1 1 98 2 3 98 1 5
Dibromochloromethane 102 1 1 101 2 1 104 1 1 102 1 2
2-Picoline NA NA NA NA NA NA 169 69 26 217 28 33
1,2-Dibromoethane 100 1 2 100 1 1 101 1 2 104 1 5
Chlorobenzene 100 1 1 100 1 1 99 1 1 102 0 2
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 101 1 1 100 1 0 102 1 1 100 1 2
Ethylbenzene 97 2 1 99 2 1 98 1 0 97 2 1
N-Nitrosomethylethylamine 70 9 4 111 10 20 130 35 25 79 1 4
m+p-Xylenes 98 2 1 99 1 1 97 1 0 101 1 1
Styrene 98 0 1 99 1 1 97 3 1 102 0 3
o-Xylene 98 1 1 99 1 1 98 1 1 106 1 2
Isopropylbenzene 97 2 1 99 2 1 95 3 1 84 2 2
Bromoform 103 2 2 101 2 1 109 1 2 108 2 6
cis-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 102 4 2 102 2 1 110 2 1 114 4 6


8261 - 82 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 13
(continued)




Watera Water/Glycerinb Water/Saltc Water/Soapd
% Rel IS % Rel IS % Rel IS % Rel Surr
Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg
Compound

N-Nitrosodiethylamine 78 9 6 133 11 60 128 31 18 78 2 9
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 101 2 2 100 3 1 111 2 2 82 3 4
4-Bromo-1-fluorobenzene 101 1 1 101 1 1 101 1 1 102 1 3
1,2,3-Trichloropropane 97 6 2 99 3 1 105 6 2 112 3 6
n-Propylbenzene 97 2 1 98 2 1 94 3 1 81 3 2
trans-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 101 4 2 102 2 1 111 2 2 115 4 7
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 98 3 1 99 2 1 96 3 1 83 1 1
Bromobenzene 101 0 1 101 0 1 100 1 1 104 1 3
2-Chlorotoluene 96 4 1 99 3 1 95 3 1 88 2 2
4-Chlorotoluene 101 2 1 100 2 1 98 1 1 94 2 2
Pentachloroethane 103 10 1 100 9 1 94 18 1 29 8 1
tert-Butylbenzene 99 3 1 100 3 1 95 5 1 66 2 1
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 98 2 1 99 2 1 96 2 1 88 2 2
sec-Butylbenzene 98 3 1 99 2 1 93 3 2 74 2 2
Aniline 119 40 18 74 15 65 79 37 30 97 9 29
p-Isopropyltoluene 97 0 2 98 4 2 93 3 2 81 2 4
1,3-Dichlorobenzene 101 1 1 100 1 1 99 1 1 98 1 3
1,4-Dichlorobenzene 101 1 1 101 1 1 100 2 1 105 1 3
n-Butylbenzene 97 2 2 98 3 2 91 2 2 74 2 3
1,2-Dichlorobenzene 100 1 1 100 1 1 100 1 2 102 1 5
Benzyl alcohol 128 28 19 167 14 125 65 35 15 93 5 23


8261 - 83 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 13
(continued)




Watera Water/Glycerinb Water/Saltc Water/Soapd
% Rel IS % Rel IS % Rel IS % Rel Surr
Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg
Compound

N-Nitroso-di-n-propylamine 68 14 5 108 9 25 56 15 29 112 5 15
Acetophenone-d5 71 20 7 81 7 7 99 66 23 156 7 17
o-Toluidine 127 42 21 66 20 61 97 49 41 115 15 37
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 101 9 3 99 5 3 111 25 4 156 7 15
Hexachlorobutadiene 101 2 2 102 4 3 92 3 3 74 2 4
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 101 1 2 100 1 3 102 1 3 104 1 5
Naphthalene-d8 102 5 2 100 2 4 112 5 5 127 3 10
Naphthalene 101 4 2 101 2 4 110 2 5 125 3 9
1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 100 2 2 100 1 4 100 3 5 93 3 8
N-Nitrosodibutylamine 208 109 43 400 32 384 90 69 67 98 21 43
2-Methylnaphthalene 84 6 8 91 10 12 98 27 24 55 3 11
a
5-mL water samples
b
1 g of glycerin added to 5 mL of water
c
1 g of salt added to 5 mL of water
d
0.2 g of concentrated soap added to 5 mL of water
e
Average of four replicate analyses
f
Relative standard deviation of replicate analyses
g
Average variation between the predicted analyte
recoveries of the surrogate pairs for the replicate analyses.
This precision value provides a measure of the inherent
error in the overall measurement.
h
NA = compound not significantly present in vacuum
distillate.




8261 - 84 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 14

EXAMPLE RECOVERY OF ANALYTES SPIKED INTO WATER SOLUTIONS AND ANALYZED BY VACUUM DISTILLATION
GC/MS USING A NARROW-BORE CAPILLARY COLUMN


Watera Water/Glycerinb Water/Saltc Water/Soapd
% Rel Surr % Rel Surr % Rel Surr % Rel Surr
Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg
Compound

Dichlorodifluoromethane 76 9 1 84 8 1 85 6 1 56 7 1
Chloromethane 81 6 1 86 8 1 83 10 1 77 3 1
Vinyl chloride 78 5 1 81 3 1 74 4 1 81 4 1
Bromomethane 101 5 1 103 2 0 116 47 1 102 4 1
Chloroethane 95 5 1 96 2 1 112 52 1 95 5 1
Trichlorofluoromethane 122 52 1 98 1 1 120 58 1 96 3 1
Diethyl ether 106 17 2 98 12 1 14 8 0 17 14 1
Acrolein 111 16 3 114 5 1 20 10 2 49 6 2
Acetone 114 17 5 286 41 16 88 5 20 71 10 3
1,1-Dichloroethene 102 10 1 98 6 1 20 12 0 93 9 1
Iodomethane 103 7 1 104 7 0 98 4 1 103 2 0
Allyl chloride 102 10 1 101 6 1 95 4 1 101 3 1
Acetonitrile 122 21 6 189 2 7 82 11 17 99 8 4
Methylene chloride-d2 103 7 1 104 9 0 99 7 1 102 6 2
Methylene chloride 99 9 1 101 10 0 95 10 1 98 8 2
Acrylonitrile 97 1 7 95 3 7 112 21 27 93 3 4
trans-1,2-Dichloroethane 100 4 1 100 5 0 94 8 1 93 6 1
1,1-Dichloroethane 102 5 1 102 5 0 101 4 0 101 1 1
Methacrylonitrile 101 3 2 101 1 1 108 7 7. 104 2 4
2-Butanone 68 43 7 106 31 10 105 27 25 97 2 4
Propionitrile 100 6 6 109 9 14 111 31 22 103 3 4


8261 - 85 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 14
(continued)



Watera Water/Glycerinb Water/Saltc Water/Soapd
% Rel Surr % Rel Surr % Rel Surr % Rel Surr
Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg
Compound

2,2-Dichloropropane 100 1 1 99 1 1 100 1 1 102 1 1
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene 100 1 1 100 1 0 97 2 0 103 0 1
Chloroform 100 1 1 100 2 1 100 2 0 103 1 2
Isobutyl alcohol 86 7 5 137 17 5 116 21 30 76 10 3
Bromochloromethane 102 1 1 102 1 0 100 0 1 102 1 1
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 100 1 1 99 1 1 98 3 1 99 1 1
1,1-Dichloropropene 95 3 1 96 3 1 94 3 1 99 3 1
Carbon tetrachloride 100 0 1 100 2 1 100 2 1 88 2 1
Benzene-d6 99 1 1 99 1 1 99 1 0 100 1 1
1,2-Dichloroethane 101 1 1 101 1 1 99 1 1 100 1 2
Benzene 99 0 1 100 1 1 99 2 0 99 1 1
Trichloroethene 100 1 1 99 1 0 98 1 1 109 1 0
1,2-Dichloropropane-d6 99 2 1 99 2 0 99 2 1 101 2 2
1,2-Dichloropropane 100 1 1 100 1 0 99 1 1 101 1 2
Methyl methacrylate 106 7 2 128 10 1 114 4 5 106 2 5
Bromodichloromethane 102 1 1 100 1 0 102 2 1 101 1 2
1,4-Dioxane 101 8 8 156 15 83 96 18 16 102 3 14
Dibromomethane 102 1 2 101 1 1 99 1 3 100 1 5
4-Methyl-2-pentanone 102 5 3 102 3 1 116 1 9 110 2 5
trans-1,3-Dichloropropene 99 1 1 100 0 1 99 2 1 103 1 1
Toluene 98 2 1 99 1 1 97 3 1 97 1 1
Pyridine 61 20 16 NA NA NA 104 24 37 128 7 36

8261 - 86 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 14
(continued)



Watera Water/Glycerinb Water/Saltc Water/Soapd
% Rel Surr % Rel Surr % Rel Surr % Rel Surr
Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg
Compound

cis-1,3-Dichloropropene 99 1 1 99 1 1 97 2 1 100 1 2
Ethyl methacrylate 109 9 2 156 17 1 109 25 3 105 2 4
N-Nitrosodimethylamine 75 8 2 97 8 1 105 32 10 69 9 4
1,1,2-Trichloroethane-d3 100 1 2 100 2 1 101 2 3 99 1 5
2-Hexanone 102 9 3 99 4 1 118 4 11 112 3 5
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 100 2 2 100 1 1 101 1 2 101 1 5
Tetrachloroethene 98 11 1 98 14 1 106 34 1 200 36 0
1,3-Dichloropropane 98 1 2 99 1 1 98 2 3 98 1 5
Dibromochloromethane 102 1 1 101 2 1 104 1 1 102 1 2
2-Picoline NA NA NA NA NA NA 169 69 26 217 28 33
1,2-Dibromoethane 100 1 2 100 1 1 101 1 2 104 1 5
Chlorobenzene 100 1 1 100 1 1 99 1 1 102 0 2
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 101 1 1 100 1 0 102 1 1 100 1 2
Ethylbenzene 97 2 1 99 2 1 98 1 0 97 2 1
N-Nitrosomethylethylamine 70 9 4 111 10 20 130 35 25 79 1 4
m+p-Xylenes 98 2 1 99 1 1 97 1 0 101 1 1
Styrene 98 0 1 99 1 1 97 3 1 102 0 3
o-Xylene 98 1 1 99 1 1 98 1 1 106 1 2
Isopropylbenzene 97 2 1 99 2 1 95 3 1 84 2 2
Bromoform 103 2 2 101 2 1 109 1 2 108 2 6
cis-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 102 4 2 102 2 1 110 2 1 114 4 6
N-Nitrosodiethylamine 78 9 6 133 11 60 128 31 18 78 2 9

8261 - 87 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 14
(continued)



Watera Water/Glycerinb Water/Saltc Water/Soapd
% Rel Surr % Rel Surr % Rel Surr % Rel Surr
Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg
Compound

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 101 2 2 100 3 1 111 2 2 82 3 4
4-Bromo-1-fluorobenzene 101 1 1 101 1 1 101 1 1 102 1 3
1,2,3-Trichloropropane 97 6 2 99 3 1 105 6 2 112 3 6
n-Propylbenzene 97 2 1 98 2 1 94 3 1 81 3 2
trans-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 101 4 2 102 2 1 111 2 2 115 4 7
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 98 3 1 99 2 1 96 3 1 83 1 1
Bromobenzene 101 0 1 101 0 1 100 1 1 104 1 3
2-Chlorotoluene 96 4 1 99 3 1 95 3 1 88 2 2
4-Chlorotoluene 101 2 1 100 2 1 98 1 1 94 2 2
Pentachloroethane 103 10 1 100 9 1 94 18 1 29 8 1
tert-Butylbenzene 99 3 1 100 3 1 95 5 1 66 2 1
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 98 2 1 99 2 1 96 2 1 88 2 2
sec-Butylbenzene 98 3 1 99 2 1 93 3 2 74 2 2
Aniline 119 40 18 74 15 65 79 37 30 97 9 29
p-Isopropyltoluene 97 0 2 98 4 2 93 3 2 81 2 4
1,3-Dichlorobenzene 101 1 1 100 1 1 99 1 1 98 1 3
1,4-Dichlorobenzene 101 1 1 101 1 1 100 2 1 105 1 3
n-Butylbenzene 97 2 2 98 3 2 91 2 2 74 2 3
1,2-Dichlorobenzene 100 1 1 100 1 1 100 1 2 102 1 5
Benzyl alcohol 128 28 19 167 14 125 65 35 15 93 5 23
N-Nitroso-di-n-propylamine 68 14 5 108 9 25 56 15 29 112 5 15
Acetophenone-d5 71 20 7 81 7 7 99 66 23 156 7 17

8261 - 88 Revision 1
October 2006
Watera Water/Glycerinb Water/Saltc Water/Soapd
% Rel Surr % Rel Surr % Rel Surr % Rel Surr
Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg Rece Errorf Precg
Compound

o-Toluidine 127 42 21 66 20 61 97 49 41 115 15 37
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 101 9 3 99 5 3 111 25 4 156 7 15
Hexachlorobutadiene 101 2 2 102 4 3 92 3 3 74 2 4
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 101 1 2 100 1 3 102 1 3 104 1 5
Naphthalene-d8 102 5 2 100 2 4 112 5 5 127 3 10
Naphthalene 101 4 2 101 2 4 110 2 5 125 3 9
1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 100 2 2 100 1 4 100 3 5 93 3 8
N-Nitrosodibutylamine 208 109 43 400 32 384 90 69 67 98 21 43
2-Methylnaphthalene 84 6 8 91 10 12 98 27 24 55 3 11
a
5-mL water samples
b
1 g of glycerin added to 5 mL of water
c
1 g of salt added to 5 mL of water
d
0.2 g of concentrated soap added to 5 mL of water
e
Average of four replicate analyses
f
Relative standard deviation of replicate analyses
g
Average variation between the predicted analyte
recoveries of the surrogate pairs for the replicate analyses.
This precision value provides a measure of the inherent
error in the overall measurement.
h
NA = compound not significantly present in vacuum
distillate.


TABLE 15

EXAMPLE RECOVERY OF ANALYTES SPIKED INTO VARIOUS WATER VOLUMES AND ANALYZED BY VACUUM
DISTILLATION GC/MS USING A NARROW-BORE CAPILLARY COLUMN




8261 - 89 Revision 1
October 2006
Watera Waterb Waterc Waterd
% Rece % Rece % Rece
Rel % Rel Rel Rel
Errorf Rece Errorf Errorf Errorf
Compound

Methyl acetate 122 22 80 1 137 20 88 1
MTBE 103 8 110 1 112 3 107 2
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2- 100 8 110 1 103 8 114 6
trifluoroethane
Carbon disulfide 117 6 98 7 113 8 92 2
Cyclohexane 106 3 114 1 113 6 116 5
Methyl cyclohexane 99 14 111 1 92 10 114 5
a
5-mL water samples spiked at 1 ppb
b
5-mL water samples spiked at 50 ppb
c
25-mL water samples spiked at 0.2 ppb
d
25-mL water samples spiked at 10 ppb
e
Average of three replicate analyses
f
Relative standard deviation of replicate analyses




8261 - 90 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 16

EXAMPLE METHOD PERFORMANCE IN FISH TISSUE USING A WIDE-BORE CAPILLARY COLUMN



Using Water Standardsa Using Tuna Standardsb

Mean Mean Mean Mean
Spike Compound Surrogate Compound Surrogate
(ppb)c Recoveryd RSDe Recoveryf Recoveryd RSDe Recoveryf
Compound Surrogate Type

Dichlorodifluoromethane 1000 109 22 24 116 17 16
Chloromethane 1000 105 16 16 102 13 10
Vinyl chloride 1000 105 20 21 115 15 14
Bromomethane 1000 90 19 11 89 18 7
Chloroethane 1000 102 21 18 110 17 12
Trichlorofluoromethane 1000 97 24 21 125 18 16
Diethyl ether-d10 Check 250 113 9 4 108 9 3
Ether 500 104 10 4 106 10 3
Acetone-d6 Check 2500 41 27 0 149 20 1
Acetone Cont -- -- -- -- -- --
1,1-Dichloroethene 500 44 54 8 134 31 15
Iodomethane 500 10 101 1 57 129 3
Allyl chloride 500 55 75 9 96 79 9
Acetonitrile Int -- -- -- -- -- --
Methylene chloride-d6 Check 250 94 18 3 109 19 2
Methylene chloride 500 74 24 2 91 22 2
Acrylonitrile 500 65 25 0 75 28 0
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene 500 77 29 7 84 32 5
Nitromethane-d3 Check 250 121 42 3 133 41 2
1,1-Dichloroethane 500 89 74 1 53 40 0
Hexafluorobenzene Alpha 250 -- -- -- -- -- --
Tetrahydrofuran-d8 Alpha 250 -- -- -- -- -- --
Methacrylonitrile 500 103 17 5 100 17 5
2-Butanone 500 122 11 2 149 10 1
Propionitrile 500 113 8 5 120 8 3
Ethyl acetate-13C Check 2500 76 18 1 95 18 0




8261 - 91 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 16
(continued)



Using Water Standardsa Using Tuna Standardsb

Mean Mean Mean Mean
Spike Compound Surrogate Compound Surrogate
(ppb)c Recoveryd RSDe Recoveryf Recoveryd RSDe Recoveryf
Compound Surrogate Type

2,2-Dichloropropane 500 94 16 14 108 13 10
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene 500 102 6 3 100 7 2
Chloroform 500 101 6 4 100 7 3
Pentafluorobenzene Alpha 250 -- -- -- -- -- --
Bromochloromethane 500 100 5 2 99 5 2
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 500 91 18 14 113 13 10
1,1-Dichloropropene 500 99 21 18 128 15 15
Carbon tetrachloride 500 80 22 15 122 17 14
Benzene-d6 Alpha 500 -- -- -- -- -- --
1,2-Dichloroethane-d4 Alpha 250 -- -- -- -- -- --
1,2-Dichloroethane 500 100 3 2 99 3 2
Benzene 500 102 3 1 101 3 1
Fluorobenzene Alpha 250 -- -- -- -- -- --
1,4-Difluorobenzene Alpha 250 -- -- -- -- -- --
Trichloroethene 500 71 10 6 86 8 5
1,2-Dichloropropane-d6 Check 250 93 2 3 94 2 2
1,2-Dichloropropane 500 93 3 3 93 2 2
Methyl methacrylate 500 102 13 5 99 13 4
1,4-Dioxane-d8 Alpha 2500 -- -- -- -- -- --
Bromodichloromethane 500 75 10 2 86 11 2
1,4-Dioxane 500 115 3 22 108 3 11
Dibromomethane 500 92 4 4 99 4 3
4-Methyl-2-pentanone 1000 128 20 8 108 21 6
trans-1,3-Dichloropropene 500 61 36 2 61 36 2
Toluene-d8 Beta 250 -- -- -- -- -- --
Toluene 500 101 4 4 98 4 2
Pyridine-d5 Check/Alpha 2500 51 25 25 72 16 21
Pyridine 500 62 21 27 81 13 20


8261 - 92 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 16
(continued)



Using Water Standardsa Using Tuna Standardsb

Mean Mean Mean Mean
Spike Compound Surrogate Compound Surrogate
(ppb)c Recoveryd RSDe Recoveryf Recoveryd RSDe Recoveryf
Compound Surrogate Type

cis-1,3-Dichloropropene 500 61 27 2 66 27 2
Ethyl methacrylate 500 100 12 5 95 12 4
N-Nitrosodimethylamine 3350 657 28 39 160 30 10
1,1,2-Trichloroethane-d3 Check 250 80 6 4 93 6 3
2-Hexanone 500 141 23 9 114 23 7
1,1,2-Trichloroethane 500 82 5 4 93 5 3
Tetrachloroethene 500 73 16 11 106 12 10
1,3-Dichloropropane 500 99 2 5 97 2 3
Dibromochloromethane 500 61 11 3 90 19 3
1,2-Dibromoethane-d4 250 -- -- -- -- -- --
2-Picoline 500 163 16 38 131 11 16
1,2-Dibromoethane 500 99 4 6 99 4 4
Chlorobenzene-d5 Beta 250 -- -- -- -- -- --
Chlorobenzene 500 95 3 6 99 3 4
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 500 88 4 5 95 5 3
Ethylbenzene 500 111 7 4 110 7 2
N-Nitrosomethylethylamine 3350 516 31 31 182 27 7
m+p-Xylenes 500 107 6 4 107 6 2
Styrene 500 94 3 4 95.7 3 3
o-Xylene-d10 250 -- -- -- -- -- --
o-Xylene 500 102 4 4 101 4 3
Isopropylbenzene 500 116 16 8 124 15 6
Bromoform 500 53 30 2 118 38 4
cis-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 500 5 134 0 5 134 0
N-Nitrosodiethylamine 3350 356 31 62 168 28 18
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 500 37 62 2 144 72 5
4-Bromofluorobenzene Check 250 92 4 4 97 3 4
1,2,3-Dichloropropane 500 103 10 5 98 11 4


8261 - 93 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 16
(continued)



Using Water Standardsa Using Tuna Standardsb

Mean Mean Mean Mean
Spike Compound Surrogate Compound Surrogate
(ppb)c Recoveryd RSDe Recoveryf Recoveryd RSDe Recoveryf
Compound Surrogate Type

Propylbenzene 500 113 17 10 125 16 8
trans-1,4-Dichloro-2-butene 500 0 0 0 0 0 0
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 500 115 9 4 113 10 3
Bromobenzene-d5 Beta 250 -- -- -- -- -- --
Bromobenzene 500 96 4 5 97 3 4
2-Chlorotoluene 500 105 4 3 107 4 3
4-Chlorotoluene 500 101 4 3 104 5 3
Pentachloroethane 500 28 54 1 135 75 5
tert-Butylbenzene 500 118 19 10 126 19 8
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 500 112 9 5 107 10 4
sec-Butylbenzene 500 114 24 15 134 22 13
Aniline 500 80 36 37 57 38 15
p-Isopropyltoluene 500 124 21 16 127 20 12
1,3-Dichlorobenzene 500 94 5 7 98 4 5
1,4-Dichlorobenzene 500 93 6 7 96 5 6
n-Butylbenzene 500 109 22 17 128 20 15
1,2-Dichlorobenzene-d4 Beta 250 -- -- -- -- -- --
1,2-Dichlorobenzene 500 91 10 10 96 9 7
Decafluorobiphenyl Beta 250 -- -- -- -- -- --
N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine 3350 288 51 47 179 50 21
Nitrobenzene-d5 Check 250 374 105 283 176 58 40
Acetophenone-d5 Check 1000 216 47 29 187 47 19
o-Toluidine 3350 67 39 34 58 41 18
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 500 97 39 12 107 40 10
Hexachlorobutadiene 500 108 27 20 122 28 18
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene-d3 Beta 250 -- -- -- -- -- --
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 500 94 12 14 94 9 11
Naphthalene-d8 Check 500 85 14 18 93 12 14


8261 - 94 Revision 1
October 2006
TABLE 16
(continued)



Using Water Standardsa Using Tuna Standardsb

Mean Mean Mean Mean
Spike Compound Surrogate Compound Surrogate
(ppb)c Recoveryd RSDe Recoveryf Recoveryd RSDe Recoveryf
Compound Surrogate Type

Naphthalene 1000 95 11 22 95 9 16
1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 500 88 8 23 96 9 18
N-Nitrosodibutylamine 3350 25 99 19 25 115 12
2-Methylnaphthalene 3350 194 21 74 96 23 26
1-Methylnaphthalene-d10 Beta 1000 -- -- -- -- -- --

a
Calibration standards were prepared using 5 mL of water as the matrix.
b
Calibration standards were prepared using 1 g of tuna as the matrix.
c
1-g samples were spiked, mixed ultrasonically, and allowed to equilibrate overnight (>1000 min) prior to analysis.
d
Average percent recovery of seven replicate analyses of fish tissue taken from canned, water-packed tuna.
e
Relative standard deviation
ND = Not determined
Int = Spectral interferences prevented accurate integrations.
Cont = The spike could not be distinguished from the background levels.




8261 - 95 Revision 1
October 2006
FIGURE 1

DIAGRAM OF VACUUM DISTILLATION APPARATUS




8261 - 96 Revision 1
October 2006
FIGURE 2

QUANTITATION REPORT EXAMPLE




8261 - 97 Revision 1
October 2006
FIGURE 3

INTERNAL STANDARD REPORT EXAMPLE




8261 - 98 Revision 1
October 2006
FIGURE 4

CHECK SURROGATE REPORT EXAMPLE




8261 - 99 Revision 1
October 2006

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